Models of Disease

  • Gema JiménezEmail author
  • Elena López-Ruiz
  • Cristina Antich
  • Carlos Chocarro-Wrona
  • Juan Antonio MarchalEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1059)


Osteochondral (OC) lesions are a major cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain and functional disability, which reduces the quality of life of the patients and entails high costs to the society. Currently, there are no effective treatments, so in vitro and in vivo disease models are critically important to obtain knowledge about the causes and to develop effective treatments for OC injuries. In vitro models are essential to clarify the causes of the disease and the subsequent design of the first barrier to test potential therapeutics. On the other hand, in vivo models are anatomically more similar to humans allowing to reproduce the pattern and progression of the lesion in a controlled scene and offering the opportunity to study the symptoms and responses to new treatments. Moreover, in vivo models are the most suitable preclinical model, being a fundamental and a mandatory step to ensure the successful transfer to clinical trials. Both in vitro and in vitro models have a number of advantages and limitation, and the choice of the most appropriate model for each study depends on many factors, such as the purpose of the study, handling or the ease to obtain, and cost, among others. In this chapter, we present the main in vitro and in vivo OC disease models that have been used over the years in the study of origin, progress, and treatment approaches of OC defects.


Osteoarthritis Osteochondral defects Disease models In vitro models In vivo models 



This work was supported by the Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (FEDER funds, project RTC-2016-5451-1). G. J. acknowledges the Junta de Andalucía for providing a post-doctoral fellowship. Also, C. A. acknowledges the predoctoral fellowship from the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports (BOE-A-2014-13539).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gema Jiménez
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Elena López-Ruiz
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  • Cristina Antich
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Carlos Chocarro-Wrona
    • 2
    • 4
  • Juan Antonio Marchal
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine Institute (IBIMER), Centre for Biomedical Research (CIBM)University of GranadaGranadaSpain
  2. 2.Biosanitary Research Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA)University Hospitals of Granada-University of GranadaGranadaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  4. 4.Excellence Research Unit “Modeling Nature” (MNat)University of GranadaGranadaSpain
  5. 5.Department of Health ScienceUniversity of JaénJaénSpain

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