Enhancing Biological and Biomechanical Fixation of Osteochondral Scaffold: A Grand Challenge

  • Maryam Tamaddon
  • Chaozong LiuEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1059)


Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease, typified by degradation of cartilage and changes in the subchondral bone, resulting in pain, stiffness and reduced mobility. Current surgical treatments often fail to regenerate hyaline cartilage and result in the formation of fibrocartilage. Tissue engineering approaches have emerged for the repair of cartilage defects and damages to the subchondral bones in the early stage of OA and have shown potential in restoring the joint’s function. In this approach, the use of three-dimensional scaffolds (with or without cells) provides support for tissue growth. Commercially available osteochondral (OC) scaffolds have been studied in OA patients for repair and regeneration of OC defects. However, some controversial results are often reported from both clinical trials and animal studies. The objective of this chapter is to report the scaffolds clinical requirements and performance of the currently available OC scaffolds that have been investigated both in animal studies and in clinical trials. The findings have demonstrated the importance of biological and biomechanical fixation of the OC scaffolds in achieving good cartilage fill and improved hyaline cartilage formation. It is concluded that improving cartilage fill, enhancing its integration with host tissues and achieving a strong and stable subchondral bone support for overlying cartilage are still grand challenges for the early treatment of OA.


Osteoarthritis Cartilage Osteochondral scaffold Biomaterials Tissue engineering 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Orthopaedics & Musculoskeletal Science, Division of Surgery & Interventional ScienceUniversity College London, Royal National Orthopaedic HospitalStanmoreUK

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