Advertisement

Micro/Nano Scaffolds for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering

  • Albino MartinsEmail author
  • Rui L. Reis
  • Nuno M. Neves
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1058)

Abstract

To develop an osteochondral tissue regeneration strategy it is extremely important to take into account the multiscale organization of the natural extracellular matrix. The structure and gradients of organic and inorganic components present in the cartilage and bone tissues must be considered together. Another critical aspect is an efficient interface between both tissues. So far, most of the approaches were focused on the development of multilayer or stratified scaffolds which resemble the structural composition of bone and cartilage, not considering in detail a transitional interface layer. Typically, those scaffolds have been produced by the combined use of two or more processing techniques (microtechnologies and nanotechnologies) and materials (organic and inorganic). A significant number of works was focused on either cartilage or bone, but there is a growing interest in the development of the osteochondral interface and in tissue engineering models of composite constructs that can mimic the cartilage/bone tissues. The few works that give attention to the interface between cartilage and bone, as well as to the biochemical gradients observed at the osteochondral unit, are also herein described.

Keywords

Multiscale organization Multilayer or stratified scaffolds Biochemical gradients Osteochondral interface 

References

  1. 1.
    Castro NJ, Patel R, Zhang LJG (2015) Design of a Novel 3D printed bioactive nanocomposite scaffold for improved osteochondral regeneration. Cell Mol Bioeng 8(3):416–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mano JF, Silva GA, Azevedo HS, Malafaya PB, Sousa RA, Silva SS, Boesel LF, Oliveira JM, Santos TC, Marques AP, Neves NM, Reis RL (2007) Natural origin biodegradable systems in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: present status and some moving trends. J R Soc Interface 4(17):999–1030CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Camarero-Espinosa S, Cooper-White J (2017) Tailoring biomaterial scaffolds for osteochondral repair. Int J Pharm 523(2):476–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stevens MM, George JH (2005) Exploring and engineering the cell surface interface. Science 310(5751):1135–1138.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1106587 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mwenifumbo S, Shaffer MS, Stevens MM (2007) Exploring cellular behaviour with multi-walled carbon nanotube constructs. J Mater Chem 17(19):1894–1902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alexander PG, Gottardi R, Lin H, Lozito TP, Tuan RS (2014) Three-dimensional osteogenic and chondrogenic systems to model osteochondral physiology and degenerative joint diseases. Exp Biol Med 239(9):1080–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ingber DE, Mow VC, Butler D, Niklason L, Huard J, Mao J, Yannas I, Kaplan D, Vunjak-Novakovic G (2006) Tissue engineering and developmental biology: going biomimetic. Tissue Eng 12(12):3265–3283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bessa PC, Casal M, Reis RL (2008) Bone morphogenetic proteins in tissue engineering: the road from laboratory to clinic, part II (BMP delivery). J Tissue Eng Regen M 2(2–3):81–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hutmacher DW, Schantz JT, Lam CXF, Tan KC, Lim TC (2007) State of the art and future directions of scaffold-based bone engineering from a biomaterials perspective. J Tissue Eng Regen M 1(4):245–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Petite H, Viateau V, Bensaid W, Meunier A, de Pollak C, Bourguignon M, Oudina K, Sedel L, Guillemin G (2000) Tissue-engineered bone regeneration. Nat Biotechnol 18(9):959–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abbah SA, Delgado LM, Azeem A, Fuller K, Shologu N, Keeney M, Biggs MJ, Pandit A, Zeugolis DI (2015) Harnessing hierarchical Nano- and Micro-fabrication Technologies for Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering. Adv Healthc Mater 4(16):2488–2499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hutmacher DW (2000) Scaffolds in tissue engineering bone and cartilage. Biomaterials 21(24):2529–2543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karageorgiou V, Kaplan D (2005) Porosity of 3D biomaterial scaffolds and osteogenesis. Biomaterials 26(27):5474–5491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stevens B, Yang YZ, Mohanda SA, Stucker B, Nguyen KT (2008) A review of materials, fabrication to enhance bone regeneration in methods, and strategies used engineered bone tissues. J Biomed Mater Res B 85b(2):573–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fang TD, Salim A, Xia W, Nacamuli RP, Guccione S, Song HM, Carano RA, Filvaroff EH, Bednarski MD, Giaccia AJ, Longaker MT (2005) Angiogenesis is required for successful bone induction during distraction osteogenesis. J Bone Miner Res 20(7):1114–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Boyan BD, Hummert TW, Dean DD, Schwartz Z (1996) Role of material surfaces in regulating bone and cartilage cell response. Biomaterials 17(2):137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Riminucci M, Bianco P (2003) Building bone tissue: matrices and scaffolds in physiology and biotechnology. Braz J Med Biol Res 36(8):1027–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gomes ME, Godinho JS, Tchalamov D, Cunha AM, Reis RL (2002) Alternative tissue engineering scaffolds based on starch: processing methodologies, morphology, degradation and mechanical properties. Mat Sci Eng C-Bio S 20(1–2):19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Costa PF, Martins A, Neves NM, Gomes ME, Reis RL (2014) Automating the processing steps for obtaining bone tissue-engineered substitutes: from imaging tools to bioreactors. Tissue Eng Part B-Re 20(6):567–577.  https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.teb.2013.0751 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dalton PD, Vaquette C, Farrugia BL, Dargaville TR, Brown TD, Hutmacher DW (2013) Electrospinning and additive manufacturing: converging technologies. Biomater Sci 1(2):171–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Martins A, Chung S, Pedro AJ, Sousa RA, Marques AP, Reis RL, Neves NM (2009) Hierarchical starch-based fibrous scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications. J Tissue Eng Regen M 3(1):37–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Canha-Gouveia A, Costa-Pinto AR, Martins AM, Silva NA, Faria S, Sousa RA, Salgado AJ, Sousa N, Reis RL, Neves NM (2015) Hierarchical scaffolds enhance osteogenic differentiation of human Wharton's jelly derived stem cells. Biofabrication 7(3). doi:10.1088/1758-5090/7/3/035009CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tuzlakoglu K, Bolgen N, Salgado AJ, Gomes ME, Piskin E, Reis RL (2005) Nano- and micro-fiber combined scaffolds: a new architecture for bone tissue engineering. J Mater Sci Mater Med 16(12):1099–1104.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-005-4713-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tuzlakoglu K, Santos MI, Neves N, Reis RL (2011) Design of Nano- and Microfiber Combined Scaffolds by electrospinning of collagen onto starch-based fiber meshes: a man-made equivalent of natural extracellular matrix. Tissue Eng Part A 17(3–4):463–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Santos MI, Fuchs S, Gomes ME, Unger RE, Reis RL, Kirkpatrick CJ (2007) Response of micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells to starch-based fiber meshes for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials 28(2):240–248. doi:S0142-9612(06)00693-4 [pii]. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.08.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Santos MI, Tuzlakoglu K, Fuchs S, Gomes ME, Peters K, Unger RE, Piskin E, Reis RL, Kirkpatrick CJ (2008) Endothelial cell colonization and angiogenic potential of combined nano- and micro-fibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials 29(32):4306–4313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Swieszkowski W, Tuan BHS, Kurzydlowski KJ, Hutmacher DW (2007) Repair and regeneration of osteochondral defects in the articular joints. Biomol Eng 24(5):489–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Costa PF, Vaquette C, Zhang QY, Reis RL, Ivanovski S, Hutmacher DW (2014) Advanced tissue engineering scaffold design for regeneration of the complex hierarchical periodontal structure. J Clin Periodontol 41(3):283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kim G, Son J, Park S, Kim W (2008) Hybrid process for fabricating 3D hierarchical scaffolds combining rapid prototyping and electrospinning. Macromol Rapid Commun 29(19):1577–1581.  https://doi.org/10.1002/marc.200800277 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Moroni L, Schotel R, Hamann D, de Wijn JR, van Blitterswijk CA (2008) 3D fiber-deposited electrospun integrated scaffolds enhance cartilage tissue formation. Adv Func Mater 18:53–60.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.200601158 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Park SH, Kim TG, Kim HC, Yang DY, Park TG (2008) Development of dual scale scaffolds via direct polymer melt deposition and electrospinning for applications in tissue regeneration. Acta Biomater 4(5):1198–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thorvaldsson A, Stenhamre H, Gatenholm P, Walkenstrom P (2008) Electrospinning of highly porous scaffolds for cartilage regeneration. Biomacromolecules 9(3):1044–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Christensen BB, Foldager CB, Hansen OM, Kristiansen AA, Dang QSL, Nielsen AD, Nygaard JV, Bunger CE, Lind M (2012) A novel nano-structured porous polycaprolactone scaffold improves hyaline cartilage repair in a rabbit model compared to a collagen type I/III scaffold: in vitro and in vivo studies. Knee Surg Sport Tr A 20(6):1192–1204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jeon JE, Vaquette C, Theodoropoulos C, Klein TJ, Hutmacher DW (2014) Multiphasic construct studied in an ectopic osteochondral defect model. J R Soc Interface 11(95):20140184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Xu T, Binder KW, Albanna MZ, Dice D, Zhao WX, Yoo JJ, Atala A (2013) Hybrid printing of mechanically and biologically improved constructs for cartilage tissue engineering applications. Biofabrication 5(1):015001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jeon JE, Vaquette C, Klein TJ, Hutmacher DW (2014) Perspectives in multiphasic osteochondral tissue engineering. Anatomical Record-Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 297(1):26–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yan LP, Silva-Correia J, Oliveira MB, Vilela C, Pereira H, Sousa RA, Mano JF, Oliveira AL, Oliveira JM, Reis RL (2015) Bilayered silk/silk-nanoCaP scaffolds for osteochondral tissue engineering: in vitro and in vivo assessment of biological performance. Acta Biomater 12:227–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Christakiran MJ, Reardon PJT, Konwarh R, Knowles JC, Mandal BB (2017) Mimicking hierarchical complexity of the osteochondral Interface using electrospun silk bioactive glass composites. Acs Appl Mater Inter 9(9):8000–8013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yousefi AM, Hoque ME, Prasad RGSV, Uth N (2015) Current strategies in multiphasic scaffold design for osteochondral tissue engineering: a review. J Biomed Mater Res A 103(7):2460–2481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Shim JH, Lee JS, Kim JY, Cho DW (2012) Bioprinting of a mechanically enhanced three-dimensional dual cell-laden construct for osteochondral tissue engineering using a multi-head tissue/organ building system. J Micromech Microeng 22(8):085014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Castro NJ, O'Brien J, Zhang LG (2015) Integrating biologically inspired nanomaterials and table-top stereolithography for 3D printed biomimetic osteochondral scaffolds. Nanoscale 7(33):14010–14022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kim K, Lam J, Lu S, Spicer PP, Lueckgen A, Tabata Y, Wong ME, Jansen JA, Mikos AG, Kasper FK (2013) Osteochondral tissue regeneration using a bilayered composite hydrogel with modulating dual growth factor release kinetics in a rabbit model. J Control Release 168(2):166–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Liu YY, Yu HC, Liu Y, Liang G, Zhang T, Hu QX (2016) Dual drug spatiotemporal release from functional gradient scaffolds prepared using 3D bioprinting and electrospinning. Polym Eng Sci 56(2):170–177.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pen.24239 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Erisken C, Kalyon DM, Wang HJ, Ornek-Ballanco C, Xu JH (2011) Osteochondral tissue formation through adipose-derived stromal cell differentiation on biomimetic Polycaprolactone Nanofibrous scaffolds with graded insulin and Beta-Glycerophosphate concentrations. Tissue Eng Pt A 17(9–10):1239–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Du YY, Liu HM, Yang Q, Wang S, Wang JL, Ma J, Noh I, Mikos AG, Zhang SM (2017) Selective laser sintering scaffold with hierarchical architecture and gradient composition for osteochondral repair in rabbits. Biomaterials 137:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gadjanski I, Vunjak-Novakovic G (2015) Challenges in engineering osteochondral tissue grafts with hierarchical structures. Expert Opin Biol Ther 15(11):1583–1599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Di Luca A, Van Blitterswijk C, Moroni L (2015) The osteochondral Interface as a gradient tissue: from development to the fabrication of gradient scaffolds for regenerative medicine. Birth Defects Research Part C-Embryo Today-Reviews 105(1):34–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albino Martins
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Rui L. Reis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nuno M. Neves
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.3B’s Research Group—Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative MedicineBarcoPortugal
  2. 2.ICVS/3B’s—PT Government Associate LaboratoryBarcoPortugal

Personalised recommendations