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Phytotoxicity of Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron (nZVI) in Remediation Strategies

  • Mar Gil-Díaz
  • M. Carmen Lobo
Chapter

Abstract

In recent years the use of nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) for environmental remediation purposes has received considerable attention. This chapter presents an overview about the state-of-the-art technology on different types of nZVI particles, their reactivity, applications, and impact on plants. The use of nZVI for the treatment of organic pollutants can lead to their total degradation, whereas for the case of metal(loid) pollution, the efficacy of the strategy is measured by the reduction of the available metal(loid) or its immobilization. The published studies about the use of nZVI on polluted soils did not find negative effects; on the contrary, the use of these nanoparticles led to a decrease of the soil toxicity due to the immobilization and/or degradation of the pollutants. The phytotoxicity of nZVI strongly depends on the nZVI type, dose, plant species, time of the exposure, and medium of application. In addition, other compounds that are added to the nanoparticles to improve their effectiveness can constitute a new source of pollution to the medium that should be controlled. Taking into account that nanoremediation is a promising strategy with potential application in contaminated sites, it is necessary to perform studies on contaminated soils with different plant species and different types and doses of nZVI analyzing the effect on the growth of the plants and at cellular scale. Monitoring studies at long term are also relevant due to the scarce data on the stability of the nanoremediation process.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the Projects REHABILITA CTM2016-78222-C2-1-R (MINECO, Spain) and FP-16-NANOREMED (IMIDRA, Comunidad de Madrid, Spain).

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IMIDRA, Finca “El Encín”Alcalá de HenaresSpain

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