Smart Cities pp 107-125 | Cite as

Building Intelligent Systems for Smart Cities: Issues, Challenges and Approaches

Chapter
Part of the Computer Communications and Networks book series (CCN)

Abstract

The concept of smart cities is gaining popularity and momentum due to their ability of providing improvised living for humans along with preserving the environmental factors. Implementing the concept of smart cities needs the incorporation of several technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Such technologies pave the way for a better development and efficient governance of smart cities. In this context, many real-life applications’ studies ranging from food management to Intelligent Transport System (ITS) management have been or being undertaken by researchers. For example, one is motivated to take up the factor of ITS as this is an integral part of such smart cities and enhanced travel within such cities. The need for ITS has generated numerous issues ranging from serious traffic jams to maintenance of roads. It has been realized that the relationship between vehicles, road networks and people can be made stronger by utilizing better transportation infrastructure along with advanced information technologies. Thereby, the ultimate objective is to build related management and governance system that are more efficient, convenient, safe and intelligent than existing systems. Smart cities are fast emerging as possible solutions for making the transport systems more intelligent and eco-friendly. This motivates us to take up this survey work that compiles a study on the different aspects of smart cities that has been considered till now. This current contribution presents the issues and approaches of different technologies employed for smart cities. We also provide the different architectural approaches and the related concerns. The survey wraps up with open issues for smart cities that can be taken up as research work for future.

Keywords

Internet of Things Intelligent system Smart city Wireless sensor networks Challenges 

References

  1. 1.
    Caragliu A, Bo CD, Nijkamp P (2011) Smart cities in Europe. J Urban Technol 18(2):65–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dutton WH, Kraemer KL, Blumler JG (1987) Wired cities: shaping the future of communications. Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc., Indianapolis, INGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bowerman B, Braverman J, Taylor J, Todosow H, Wimmersperg UV (2000) The vision of a smart city. In: Proceedings 2nd international life extension technology workshop, 28Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Batty M, Axhausen KW, Giannotti F, Pozdnoukhov A, Bazzani A, Wachowicz M, Ouzounis G, Portugali Y (2012) Smart cities of the future. Eur Phys J Spec Top 214(1):481–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arasteh H, Hosseinnezhad V, Loia V, Tommasetti A, Troisi O, Shafie-khah M, Siano P (2016) Iot-based smart cities: a survey. In: Proceedings of 16th international conference on environment and electrical engineering, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Komninos N, Schaffers H, Pallot M (2011) Developing a policy roadmap for smart cities and the future internet. In: Proceedings international conference on eChallenges, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ijaz S, Shah MA, Khan A, Ahmed M (2016) Smart cities: a survey on security concerns. Int J Adv Comput Sci Appl 7(2):612–625Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anthopoulos LG (2015) Understanding the smart city domain: a literature review. In: Transforming city governments for successful smart cities, pp 9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Giffinger R, Gudrun H (2010) Smart cities ranking: an effective instrument for the positioning of the cities? ACE: Archit City Environ 4(12):7–26Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fertner C, Giffinger R, Kramar H, Meijers E (2007) City ranking of European medium-sized cities. Centre of Regional Science, Vienna UTGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lombardi P, Giordano S, Farouh H, Yousef W (2012) Modelling the smart city performance. Eur J Soc Sci Res 25(2):137–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khatoun R, Zeadally S (2016) Smart cities: concepts, architectures, research opportunities. Commun ACM 59(8):46–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kyriazopoulou C (2015) Smart city technologies and architectures: a literature review. In: Proceedings international conference on smart cities and green ICT systems, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ishida T (2000) Understanding digital cities. In: Proceedings international conference on digital cities: experiences, technologies and future perspectives, LNCS 1765, pp 7–17Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anthopoulos LG, Tsoukalas IA (2006) The implementation model of a digital city: the case study of the digital city of Trikala, Greece: eTrikala. J e-Government 2(2):91–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Su K, Li J, Fu H (2011) Smart city and the applications. In: Proceedings international conference on electronics, communications and control, pp 1028–1031Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carretero J (2012) ADAPCITY: a self-adaptive, reliable architecture for heterogeneous devices in smart cities. In: European commissions-ICT proposersGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vilajosana I, Llosa J, Martinez B, Domingo-Prieto M, Angles A (2013) Bootstrapping smart cities through a self-sustainable model based on big data flows. IEEE Commun Mag 51(6):128–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Anthopoulos L, Fitsilis P (2010) From digital to ubiquitous cities: defining a common architecture for urban development. In: Proceedings 6th international conference on intelligent environments, pp 301–306Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Filipponi L, Vitaletti A, Landi G, Memeo V, Laura G, Pucci P (2010) Smart city: an event driven architecture for monitoring public spaces with heterogeneous sensors. In: Proceedings 4th international conference on sensor technologies and applications, pp 281–286Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Attwood A, Merabti M, Fergus P, Abuelmaatti O (2011) SCCIR: smart cities critical infrastructure response framework. In: Proceedings developments in E-systems engineering conference, pp 460–464Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Asimakopoulou E, Bessis N (2011) Buildings and crowds: forming smart cities for more effective disaster management. In: Proceedings international conference on innovative mobile and internet services in ubiquitous computing, pp 229–234Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang R, Jin L, Xiao R, Guo S, Li S (2012) 3D reconstruction and interaction for smart city based on world wind. In: Proceedings international conference on audio, language and image processing, pp 953–956Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Samaras C, Vakali A, Giatsoglou M, Chatzakou D, Angelis L (2013) Requirements and architecture design principles for a smart city experiment with sensor and social networks integration. In: Proceedings 17th Panhellenic conference on informatics, pp 327–334Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Horng GJ (2015) The adaptive recommendation mechanism for distributed parking service in smart city. Wirel Pers Commun 80(1):395–413MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang Y, Zhou Y (2012) Cloud architecture based on near field communication in the smart city. In: Proceedings 7th international conference on computer science & education, 2012, pp 231–234Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Andreini F, Crisciani F, Cicconetti C, Mambrini R (2011) A scalable architecture for geo-localized service access in smart cities. In: Proceedings future network and mobile summit, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hu M, Li C (2012) Design smart city based on 3S, IoT, grid computing and cloud computing technology. In: Proceedings internet of things workshop, CCIS 312, pp 466–472Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Xiong Z, Zhengand Y, Li C (2014) Data vitalization’s perspective towards smart city: a reference model for data service oriented architecture, In: Proceedings 14th IEEE/ACM international symposium on cluster, cloud and grid computing, pp 865–874Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wan J, Li D, Zou C, Zhou K (2012) M2M communications for smart city: an event-based architecture. In: Proceedings 12th international conference on computer and information technology, pp 895–900Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang Q, Huang T, Zhu Y, Qiu M (2013) A case study of sensor data collection and analysis in smart city: provenance in smart food supply chain. Int J Distrib Sens Netw, article ID 382132, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brenna M, Falvo MC, Foiadelli F, Martirano L, Massaro F, Poli D, Vaccaro A (2012) Challenges in energy systems for the smart-cities of the future. In: Proceedings international energy conference and exhibition, pp 755–762Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Klingert S, Niedermeier F, Dupont C, Giuliani G, Schulze T, Meer HD (2015) Renewable energy-aware data centre operations for smart cities the DC4Cities approach. In: Proceedings international conference of smart cities and green ICT systems, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Losilla F, Sanchez AJG, Sanchez FG, Haro JG, Haas ZJ (2011) A comprehensive approach to WSN-based ITS applications: a survey. Sensors 11(11):10220–10265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Birk W, Osipov E, Eliasson J (2009) iRoad—cooperative road infrastructure systems for driver support. In: Proceedings 16th ITS world congress, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Qin H, Li Z, Wang Y, Lu X, Zhang W, Wang G (2010) An integrated network of roadside sensors and vehicles for driving safety: concept, design and experiments. In: Proceedings international conference on pervasive computing and communications, pp 79–87Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kong F, Tan J (2008) A collaboration-based hybrid vehicular sensor network architecture. In: Proceedings international conference on information and automation, pp 584–589Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Weingärtner E, Kargl F (2007) A prototype study on hybrid sensor-vehicular networks. In: Proceedings 6th GI/ITG KuVS Fachgespräch wireless sensor networks, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yoo S, Chong PK, Kim D (2009) S3: school zone safety system based on wireless sensor network. Sensors 9(8):5968–5988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bohli JM, Hessler A, Ugus O, Westhoff D (2008) A secure and resilient WSN roadside architecture for intelligent transport systems. In: Proceedings 1st ACM conference on wireless network security, pp 161–171Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chang YS, Juang TY, Su CY (2008) Wireless sensor network assisted dynamic path planning for transportation systems. In: Proceedings international conference on autonomic and trusted computing, LNCS 5060, pp 615–628Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shuai M, Xie K, Ma X and Song G, (2008), An on-road wireless sensor network approach for urban traffic state monitoring. In: Proceedings 11th international conference on intelligent transportation systems, pp 1195–1200Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Harlow C, Wang Y (2002) Acoustic accident detection system. ITS J-Intell Trans Syst J 7(1):43–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mateo RMA, Lee Y, Lee J (2009) Collision detection for ubiquitous parking management based on multi-agent system. In: Proceedings international symposium on agent and multi-agent systems: technologies and applications, LNAI 5559, pp 570–578Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gazis DC (2002) The origins of traffic theory. Operations Res 50(1):69–77MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chowdhury M, Wang KC, Fries R, Ma Y, Bagaria D (2007) Distributed wireless sensor network system for transportation safety and security. In: Proceedings defense and security symposium, pp 653807–653807Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lee S, Yoon D, Ghosh A (2008) Intelligent parking lot application using wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings international symposium on collaborative technologies and systems, pp 48–57Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Benson JP, O’Donovan T, O’Sullivan P, Roedig U, Sreenan C, Barton J, Murphy A, O’Flynn B (2006) Car-park management using wireless sensor networks.. In: Proceedings 31st IEEE conference on local computer networks, pp 588–595Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Srikanth SV, Pramod PJ, Dileep KP, Tapas S, Mahesh U, Patil S, Chandra B (2009) Design and implementation of a prototype smart PARKing (SPARK) system using wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings international conference on advanced information networking and applications, pp 401–406Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yoo S, Chong PK, Kim T, Kang J, Kim D, Shin C, Sung K, Jang B (2008) PGS: parking guidance system based on wireless sensor network. In: Proceedings 3rd international symposium on wireless pervasive computing, pp 218–222Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Suryadevara NK, Mukhopadhyay SC, Wang R, Rayudu RK (2013) Forecasting the Behavior of an Elderly using Wireless Sensors Data in a Smart Home. Eng Appl Artif Intell 26(10):2641–2652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dasios A, Gavalas D, Pantziou G, Konstantopoulos C (2015) Wireless sensor network deployment for remote elderly care monitoring. In: Proceedings 8th ACM international conference on PErvasive technologies related to assistive environments, pp 61–64Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Semertzidis T, Dimitropoulos K, Koutsia A, Grammalidis N (2010) Video sensor network for real-time traffic monitoring and surveillance. IET Intell Transp Syst 4(2):103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Pérez J, Seco F, Milanés V, Jiménez A, Díaz J, Pedro T (2010) An RFID-based intelligent vehicle speed controller using active traffic signals. Sensors 10(6):5872–5887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Magpantay P, Paprotny I, Send R, Xu Q, Sherman C, Alarcon L, White R, Wright P (2014) Energy monitoring in smart buildings using wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings 3rd international conference on smart systems devices and technologies, pp 78–81Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kim SA, Shin D, Choe Y, Seibert T, Walz SP (2012) Integrated energy monitoring and visualization system for smart green city development. Autom Constr 22(2012):51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Metje N, Chapman D, Cheneler D, Ward M, Thomas A (2011) Smart pipes—instrumented water pipes, can this be made a reality? Sensors 11(8):7455–7475CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringDr. B. C. Roy Engineering CollegeDurgapurIndia

Personalised recommendations