The SAL Representation Language

  • Bernard Scott
Part of the Machine Translation: Technologies and Applications book series (MATRA, volume 2)


SAL stands for Semantico-syntactic Abstraction Language, a symbolic, second-order language to which natural language readily maps. SAL is organized as a taxonomy (ontology) of supersets, sets and subsets, allowing it to represent virtually any expressed thought, any sentence, at multiple levels of abstraction. To date, SAL has been developed for Engish and German languages only. In what follows we show only the English language variant. SAL is not a metalanguage but approaches one. Because nouns denote things and concepts that are virtually universal, SAL codes for nouns are generally applicable to any natural language. For the other open-class parts of speech (verbs, adjectives and adverbs), SAL is apt to be metalinguistic only at the SAL superset level.

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernard Scott
    • 1
  1. 1.Tarpon SpringsUSA

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