As described in the previous chapters, representative and high-quality data are essential for effective health information systems and monitoring strategies. Population health monitoring covers topics in the full range of human health and its influencing factors, and these domains are typically structured into conceptual frameworks and described in terms of indicators. These indicators can be derived from several different types of data sources, such as surveys, registers, and clinical and social epidemiological studies. The aim of this chapter is to provide insight into the various types of data sources available for public health monitoring purposes, their characteristics, specific applications, potential and limitations. The main focus of the chapter will be on the two major types of data sources used for population health monitoring: health surveys and registers. The main causes of bias, influencing data quality and validity, and issues with data access and linkage are addressed as the most important factors limiting the usability of data. The role of data protection and data governance in this is explored. The chapter will conclude with an overview of the most important current and expected future developments in the field of health-related data collection.
KeywordsData source Health interview survey Health examination survey Health register Data quality Data validity Bias Data linkage Date governance Data protection Big data
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