Hormonal Regulation of Spermatogenesis

  • Sherman Silber


The hypothalamus, the pituitary, and the testes form an integrated feedback system responsible for the correct secretion of male hormone and for normal spermatogenesis. The testes require stimulation by the pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulation hormone (FSH), which are secreted in response to the pulsatile secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) [1, 2]. GnRH has a direct connection to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and so it stimulates FSH and LH release by a direct apocrine effect. It is only permissive and does not participate in the feedback loop.


  1. 1.
    Knobil E, Neill JD (1994) The Physiology of reproduction, 2nd edn. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Knobil E, Neill JD (1998) Encyclopedia of reproduction. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Steinberger A (1975) In vitro techniques for the study of spermatogenesis. Methods Enzymol 39:283–296CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chowdhury AK, Steinberger E (1975) Effect of 5alpha reduced androgens on sex accessory organs, initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis in the rat. Biol Reprod 12:609–617CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Steinberger E, Root A, Ficher M, Smith KD (1973) The role of androgens in the initiation of spermatogenesis in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 37:746–751CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Steinberger E (1971) Hormonal control of mammalian spermatogenesis. Physiol Rev 51:1–22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Russell L (1983) Atlas of human spermatogenesis. AF Holstein and EC Roosen-Runge. J Androl 4(1):108CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Endo T, Freinkman E, de Rooij DG, Pafe DC (2017) Periodic production of retinoic acid by meiotic and somatic cells coordinates four transitions in mouse spermatogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114:E10132–E10141CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sherman Silber
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Infertility Center of St. LouisSt. Luke’s HospitalSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations