Advertisement

Testis Development, Embryology, and Anatomy

  • Sherman Silber
Chapter

Abstract

The adult testis consists of a gamete portion, which produces sperm, and an endocrine portion, which secretes testosterone [1–8]. Spermatogenesis occurs in the gamete portion, inside the seminiferous tubules where spermatozoa are generated and supported by Sertoli cells. Androgen (testosterone) is produced by Leydig cells in the interstitium in between the seminiferous tubules (Figs. 1.1 and 1.2). This androgen production is also crucial for spermatogenesis. However, it is only the local intratesticular androgen that promotes spermatogenesis. Exogenous androgen suppresses the pituitary and so turns off spermatogenesis.

References

  1. 1.
    Cunningham DJ, Brash JC, Jamieson EB (1935) Cunningham’s manual of practical anatomy, 9th edn. H. Milford, London, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Woodburne RT (1961) Essentials of human anatomy, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adashi EY, Rock JA, Rosenwaks Z (1996) Reproductive endocrinology, surgery, and technology. Lippincott-Raven, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Knobil E, Neill JD (1994) The Physiology of reproduction, 2nd edn. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gray H, Goss CM (1948) Anatomy of the human body, 25th edn. Lea & Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sobotta J, Figge FHJ, Hild WJ, Becher H (1974) Atlas of human anatomy, 9th edn. Hafner Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Runge R (1983) J Androl 4(1):108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Holstein AF, Roosen-Runge EC, Schirren CS (1988) Illustrated pathology of human spermatogenesis. Grosse, Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Silber SJ (2011) The Y chromosome in the era of intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a personal review. Fertil Steril 95:2439–48 e1-5CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Miller D, Summers J, Silber S (2004) Environmental versus genetic sex determination: a possible factor in dinosaur extinction? Fertil Steril 81:954–964CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Koubova J, Menke DB, Zhou Q, Capel B, Griswold MD, Page DC (2006) Retinoic acid regulates sex-specific timing of meiotic initiation in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:2474–2479CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Anderson EL, Baltus AE, Roepers-Gajadien HL et al (2008) Stra8 and its inducer, retinoic acid, regulate meiotic initiation in both spermatogenesis and oogenesis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:14976–14980CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Andersen CY, Silber SJ, Bergholdt SH, Jorgensen JS, Ernst E (2012) Long-term duration of function of ovarian tissue transplants: case reports. Reprod BioMed Online 25:128–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Silber S (2015) Unifying theory of adult resting follicle recruitment and fetal oocyte arrest. Reprod BioMed Online 31:472–475CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Silber S (2016) Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation: scientific implications. J Assist Reprod Genet 33:1595–1603CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Silber SJ, Kato K, Aoyama N et al (2017) Intrinsic fertility of human oocytes. Fertil Steril 107:1232–1237CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sherman Silber
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Infertility Center of St. LouisSt. Luke’s HospitalSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations