Imaging of Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

  • Yoshiyuki Arinuma
  • Shunsei Hirohata


The diagnosis of neuropsychiatric manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is challenging. Neuroimaging is very important technique for the evaluation of abnormalities occurred in the central nervous system (CNS). Computed tomography (CT) scan is one of the common techniques and is very useful to detect a large lesion such as ischemic stroke, hemorrhage and tumor, providing help to rule out CNS diseases other than SLE. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best tool at present to detect parenchymal lesions in the CNS. Conventional MRI figures out exact abnormalities in the CNS causing neurologic or psychiatric symptoms. However, it should be remembered that MRI abnormalities in patients with NPSLE are not always specific for NPSLE. New MRI techniques can give us more detailed information in patients with NPSLE in addition to findings by conventional MRI. Functional analysis of the CNS by imaging system would be promising.


NPSLE Neuroimaging Central nervous system MRI 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshiyuki Arinuma
    • 1
  • Shunsei Hirohata
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Rheumatology and Infectious diseasesKitasato University School of MedicineSagamiharaJapan
  2. 2.Department of RheumatologyNobuhara HospitalTatsunoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Rheumatology & Infectious DiseasesKitasato University School of MedicineSagamiharaJapan

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