Confidence and Humility
The author analyzes the cultural difficulties we have in situations where we should speak up but do not. Given a culture in which speaking up is not the norm, doing so means opposing the rules and standing out. It contains the possibility that, through our action, we isolate ourselves to such an extent that we are no longer part of the community. Therefore, if we want to encourage people to speak up, one way is to create the culture in which speaking up is part of its norms. In most cases, this will demand systemic changes, which can only happen if those who have the power to build the necessary culture possess the characteristics it takes, namely, confidence and humility.