Differences in Gender: Does It Exist in Bumiputra Entrepreneurs?

  • Ibrahim Tijjani Sabiu
  • Abdulaziz Abdullah
Part of the Studies on Entrepreneurship, Structural Change and Industrial Dynamics book series (ESID)


In recent decades, despite the acceleration of women participation and improvement in the economic, social, and political sphere which has heralded a new close-up to gender equality, yet the world scenario still leaves women at a less favourable position. Similarly, literature has indicated the weakness of female-owned enterprises in terms of performance and sustenance. Hence, this study intended to identify if there exists any statistically significant difference in Bumiputras’ entrepreneurial persistence by gender. Therefore, data from micro entrepreneurs in Terengganu was collected. Eventually, an independent t-test result revealed that no statistically significant difference in entrepreneurial persistence between male and female Bumiputras is found. Therefore, this finding asserted that Malaysia acknowledged as one of the fastest developing economies was determined in strengthening women entrepreneurship development. Equally, with a staggering number of the female population which is almost same as the male, Malaysia is tending towards a balanced society where females are allowed significant roles in the society.


Gender Entrepreneurial persistence Bumiputra Independent t-test Women entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship development 



The authors express their gratitude to the Government of Kano State, Nigeria, under Governor Rabiu Musa Kwankwaso for the sponsorship.


  1. Awang, Z. (2012). Research methodology and data analysis (2nd ed.). Selangor, Malaysia: Penerbit Universiti Teknologi MARA Press.Google Scholar
  2. Barba-Sánchez, V., & Atienza-Sahuquillo, C. (2012). Entrepreneurial behavior: Impact of motivation factors on decision to create a new venture. Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa, 18(2), 132–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bönte, W., & Jarosch, M. (2011). Gender differences in competitiveness, risk tolerance, and other personality traits: Do they contribute to the gender gap in entrepreneurship?. Schumpeter discussion papers 2011-012. Schumpeter School of Business and Economics, University of Wuppertal.Google Scholar
  4. Boulgarides, J. D. (1984). A comparison of male and female business managers. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 5(5), 27–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brush, C. G. (1992). Research on women business owners: Past trends, a new perspective and future directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(4), 5–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buang, N. A., & Yusof, Y. M. (2006). Motivating factors that influence class F contractors to become entrepreneurs. Journal of Education Malaysia, 31, 107–121.Google Scholar
  7. Buss, D. M. (1995). Psychological sex differences: Origins through sexual selection. American Psychologist, 50, 164–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carayannis, E. G., & Stewart, M. R. (2013). Obsessed maniacs and clairvoyant oracles: Empirically validated patterns of entrepreneurial behavior. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 2. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carland, J. W., & Carland, J. A. (1992). Managers, small business owners and entrepreneurs: The cognitive dimension. Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 4(2), 55–66.Google Scholar
  10. Chell, E., & Baines, S. (1998). Does gender affect business performance? A study of microbusinesses in business services in the UK. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 10(2), 117–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Coleman, S., & Robb, A. (2012). Gender-based firm performance differences in the United States: Examining the roles of financial capital and motivations. In K. D. Hughes & J. E. Jennings (Eds.), Global women’s entrepreneurship research: Diverse settings, questions and approaches (pp. 75–94). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  12. Costa, P., Jr., Terracciano, A., & RR, M. C. (2001). Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: robust and surprising findings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(2), 322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Croson, R., & Gneezy, U. (2009). Gender differences in preferences. Journal of Economic Literature, 47, 448–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cross, S. E., & Markus, H. R. (1999). The cultural constitution of personality. Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 2, 378–396.Google Scholar
  15. Department of Statistics Malaysia. (2016). Labour force survey report, Malaysia.
  16. Díaz-García, M. C., & Jiménez-Moreno, J. (2010). Entrepreneurial intention: The role of gender. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6(3), 261–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Du Rietz, A., & Henrekson, M. (2000). Testing the female underperformance hypothesis. Small Business Economics, 14(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, 109(3), 573–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fairlie, R. W., & Robb, A. M. (2009). Gender differences in business performance: Evidence from the characteristics of business owners’ survey. Small Business Economics, 33, 375–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garba, A. S. (2011). Stumbling block for women entrepreneurship in Nigeria: How risk attitude and lack of capital mitigates their need for business expansion. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 36, 38–49.Google Scholar
  21. Gatewood, E., Carter, N. M., Brush, C. G., Greene, P. G., & Hart, M. M. (2003). Women entrepreneurs, their ventures and the venture capital industry: An annotated bibliography. The Diana Project. Stockholm: ESBRI.Google Scholar
  22. GEM. (2012). Global entrepreneurship monitor, global report. Global Entrepreneurship Research Association (GERA).Google Scholar
  23. GEM. (2017). Global entrepreneurship monitor, global report. Global Entrepreneurship Research Association (GERA).Google Scholar
  24. Goyal, P., & Yadav, V. (2014). To be or not to be a woman entrepreneur in a developing country. Psychosociological Issues in Human Resource Management, 2(2), 68–78.Google Scholar
  25. Haines, H., & Townsend, D. (2014). Self-doubt and entrepreneurial persistence: How founders of high-growth ventures overcome cognitive constraints on growth and persist with their ventures. In Entrepreneurial resourcefulness: Competing with constraints (pp. 95–124). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  26. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  27. Haus, I., Steinmetz, H., Isidor, R., & Kabst, R. (2013). Gender effects on entrepreneurial intention: A meta-analytical structural equation model. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 5(2), 130–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Henry, C., Foss, L., & Ahl, H. (2015). Gender and entrepreneurship research: A review of methodological approaches. International Small Business Journal, 34(3), 217–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hisrich, R. D., & Brush, C. G. (1983). The woman entrepreneur: Implications of family, educational, and occupational experience. In J. Hornaday, J. Timmons, & K. Vesper (Eds.), Frontiers of entrepreneurship research (pp. 255–270). Wellesley, MA: Babson College.Google Scholar
  30. Hofstede, G. (1980). Cultural consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills: Stage.Google Scholar
  31. Hughes, K. D. (2005). Female enterprise in the new economy. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  32. Hughes, K. D., Jennings, J. E., Brush, C., Carter, S., & Welter, F. (2012). Extending women’s entrepreneurship research in new directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(3), 429–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ismail, M., Khalid, S. A., Othman, M., Rahman, N. A., Kassim, K. M., & Zain, R. S. (2009). Entrepreneurial intention among Malaysian undergraduates. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(10), 54–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jennings, J. E., & Brush, C. G. (2013). Research on women entrepreneurs: challenges to (and from) the broader entrepreneurship literature? The Academy of Management Annals, 7(1), 663–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kalkan, M., & Kaygusuz, C. (2012). In: Thierry Burger-Helmchen (Ed.) The psychology of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship – born, made and educated. InTech. doi: Accessed on May 17, 2017 from CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Karimi, S., Biemans, H. J., Naderi Mahdei, K., Lans, T., Chizari, M., & Mulder, M. (2017). Testing the relationship between personality characteristics, contextual factors and entrepreneurial intentions in a developing country. International Journal of Psychology, 52(3), 227–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kelley, D. J., Singer, S., & Herrington, M. (2011). The global entrepreneurship monitor, 2011 global report. Global Entrepreneurship Research Association, London Business School.Google Scholar
  38. Kepler, E., & Shane, S. (2007). Are male and female entrepreneurs really that different?. Office of Advocacy, US Small Business Administration.Google Scholar
  39. Klyver, K., Nielsen, S. L., & Evald, M. R. (2012). More gender equality, less women’s self-employment: A multi-country investigation. In K. Hughes & J. Jennings (Eds.), Global women’s entrepreneurship research: Diverse settings, questions and approaches (pp. 171–188). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  40. Labour Force Survey, Department of statistics, Malaysia. (2015). Table 7.2.1: Labour force participation rate by sex and age group, 2001–2015, Malaysia.
  41. Lynn, R., & Martin, T. (1997). Gender differences in extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism in 37 nations. The Journal of Social Psychology, 137(3), 369–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nair, S. R. (2016). Women entrepreneurship across nations: Opportunities and challenges. In N. Baporikar (Ed.), Handbook of research on entrepreneurship in the contemporary knowledge-based global economy (pp. 189–216). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Parvin, L., Rahman, M. W., & Jia, J. (2012). Determinates of women micro entrepreneurship development: An empirical investigation in rural Bangladesh. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 4(5), 254–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Patel, P. C., & Thatcher, S. M. (2014). Sticking it out individual attributes and persistence in self-employment. Journal of Management, 40(7), 1932–1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Reimers-Hild, C. I. (2005). Locus of control, need for achievement and risk taking propensity: A framework for the “entrepreneurial” learner of the 21st century. University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Accessed October 11, 2017 from
  46. Roddin, R., Sidi, N., Yusof, Y., Mohamed, M., & Abdul Razaq, A. (2011). Poverty alleviation among single mothers in Malaysia: Building entrepreneurship capacity. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(17), 92–100.Google Scholar
  47. Rosmah M (2010, October 26). Malaysian young women entrepreneurs forum, 2010. Accessed April 22, 2016 from
  48. Sabiu, I. T., Abdullah, A., & Amin, A. (2017). Impact of motivation and personality characteristics on Bumiputeras’ entrepreneurial persistence in Malaysia. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 22(2), 1750009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sandberg, S. (2013). Lean in: Women, work, and the will to lead. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  50. Santos, F. J., Roomi, M. A., & Liñán, F. (2016). About gender differences and the social environment in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Small Business Management, 54(1), 49–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.Google Scholar
  52. Shaver, K. G., & Scott, L. R. (1991). Person, process, choice: The psychology of new venture creation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(2), 23–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stotsky, J. G., Shibuya, S., Kolovich, L., & Kebhaj, S. (2016). Trends in gender equality and women’s advancement. Unpublished Manuscript, International Monetary Fund.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Teoh, W. M. Y., & Chong, S. C. (2014). Towards strengthening the development of women entrepreneurship in Malaysia. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 29(7), 432–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Van der Zwan, P., Thurik, R., Verheul, I., & Hessels, J. (2016). Factors influencing the entrepreneurial engagement of opportunity and necessity entrepreneurs. Eurasian Business Review, 6(3), 273–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wagner, J. (2007). What a difference a Y makes-female and male nascent entrepreneurs in Germany. Small Business Economics, 28(1), 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Weiner, B. (1990). Attribution in personality psychology. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 465–485). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  58. Wille, B., De Fruyt, F., & Feys, M. (2010). Vocational interests and big five traits as predictors of job instability. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(3), 547–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Williams JE, and Best DL (1990). Measuring sex stereotypes: A multination study (rev. ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  60. Wilson, F., Kickul, J., & Marlino, D. (2007). Gender, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and entrepreneurial career intentions: Implications for entrepreneurship Education. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 31(3), 387–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yadav, V., & Unni, J. (2016). Women entrepreneurship: Research review and future directions. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 6, 12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zahra, S. A., Jennings, D. F., & Kuratko, D. F. (1999). The antecedents and consequences of firm-level entrepreneurship: The state of the field. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 24(2), 45–45.Google Scholar
  63. Zamberi Ahmad, S., Roland Xavier, S., & Rahim Abu Bakar, A. (2014). Examining entrepreneurial intention through cognitive approach using Malaysia GEM Data. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 27(3), 449–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ibrahim Tijjani Sabiu
    • 1
  • Abdulaziz Abdullah
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Economics and Management SciencesUniversiti Sultan Zainal AbidinGong BadakMalaysia

Personalised recommendations