Accuracy Evaluation of Remote Photoplethysmography Estimations of Heart Rate in Gaming Sessions with Natural Behavior

  • Fernando BevilacquaEmail author
  • Henrik Engström
  • Per Backlund
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10714)


Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) can be used to remotely estimate heart rate (HR) of users to infer their emotional state. However natural body movement and facial actions of users significantly impact such techniques, so their reliability within contexts involving natural behavior must be checked. We present an experiment focused on the accuracy evaluation of an established rPPG technique in a gaming context. The technique was applied to estimate the HR of subjects behaving naturally in gaming sessions whose games were carefully designed to be casual-themed, similar to off-the-shelf games and have a difficulty level that linearly progresses from a boring to a stressful state. Estimations presented mean error of 2.99 bpm and Pearson correlation \(r=0.43\), \(p < 0.001\), however with significant variations among subjects. Our experiment is the first to measure the accuracy of an rPPG technique using boredom/stress-inducing casual games with subjects behaving naturally.


Games Emotion assessment Remote photoplethysmography Computer vision Affective computing 



The authors would like to thank the participants and all involved personnel for their valuable contributions. This work has been performed with support from: CNPq, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - Brasil; University of Skövde; EU Interreg ÖKS project Game Hub Scandinavia; UFFS, Federal University of Fronteira Sul.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of SkövdeSkövdeSweden
  2. 2.Federal University of Fronteira SulChapecóBrazil

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