Immersion and Togetherness: How Live Visualization of Audience Engagement Can Enhance Music Events

  • Najereh Shirzadian
  • Judith A. Redi
  • Thomas Röggla
  • Alice Panza
  • Frank Nack
  • Pablo Cesar
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10714)


This paper evaluates the influence of an additional visual aesthetic layer on the experience of concert goers during a live event. The additional visual layer incorporates musical features as well as bio-sensing data collected during the concert, which is coordinated by our audience engagement monitoring technology. This technology was used during a real Jazz concert. The collected measurements were used in an experiment with 32 participants, where two different forms of visualization were compared: one factoring in music amplitude, audience engagement collected by the sensors and the dynamic atmosphere of the event, the other one purely relying on the beat of the music. The findings indicate that the visual layer could add value to the experience if used during a live concert, providing a higher level of immersion and feeling of togetherness among the audience.


  1. 1.
    Aron, A., Aron, E.N., Smollan, D.: Inclusion of other in the self scale and the structure of interpersonal closeness. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 63(4), 596 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Attfield, S., Kazai, G., Lalmas, M., Piwowarski, B.: Towards a science of user engagement (position paper). In: WSDM Workshop on User Modelling for Web Applications, pp. 9–12 (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brown, E., Cairns, P.: A grounded investigation of game immersion. In: CHI 2004 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1297–1300. ACM (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cerratto-Pargman, T., Rossitto, C., Barkhuus, L.: Understanding audience participation in an interactive theater performance. In: Proceedings of the 8th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Fun, Fast, Foundational, NordiCHI 2014, pp. 608–617. ACM, New York (2014)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Davison, A.C.: Statistical models, vol. 11. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2003)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dekker, A.: Synaesthetic performance in the club scene. In: 3rd Conference on Computational Semiotics for Games and New Media, p. 24 (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dion, K., Berscheid, E., Walster, E.: What is beautiful is good. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 24(3), 285 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Engström, A., Esbjörnsson, M., Juhlin, O.: Mobile collaborative live video mixing. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, pp. 157–166. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Engström, A., Esbjörnsson, M., Juhlin, O.: Nighttime visual media production in club environments. In: Night and Darkness: Interaction after Dark-workshop, at CHI (2008)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Engström, A., Esbjörnsson, M., Juhlin, O., Norlin, C.: More tv!-support for local and collaborative production and consumption of mobile tv. In: Adjunct Proceedings of EuroITV, pp. 173–177 (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Evans, N.J., Jarvis, P.A.: The group attitude scale a measure of attraction to group. Small Group Res. 17(2), 203–216 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Faulkner, M.: VJ: Audio-Visual Art and VJ Culture. Laurence King Publishing Ltd, London (2006)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hall, E.T., et al.: The Silent Language, vol. 3. Doubleday, New York (1959)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Haywood, N., Cairns, P.: Engagement with an interactive museum exhibit. In: McEwan, T., Gulliksen, J., Benyon, D. (eds.) People and Computers XIX–The Bigger Picture. Springer, London (2006). Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jacquemin, C., Gagneré, G., Lahoz, B.: Shedding light on shadow: real-time interactive artworks based on cast shadows or silhouettes. In: Proceedings of the 19th ACM International Conference on Multimedia, MM 2011, pp. 173–182. ACM, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jennett, C., Cox, A.L., Cairns, P., Dhoparee, S., Epps, A., Tijs, T., Walton, A.: Measuring and defining the experience of immersion in games. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 66(9), 641–661 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kocielnik, R., Sidorova, N., Maggi, F.M., Ouwerkerk, M., Westerink, J.H.: Smart technologies for long-term stress monitoring at work. In: 2013 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS), pp. 53–58. IEEE (2013)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lang, P.J.: The emotion probe: studies of motivation and attention. Am. Psychol. 50(5), 372 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Latulipe, C., Carroll, E.A., Lottridge, D.: Love, hate, arousal and engagement: exploring audience responses to performing arts. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1845–1854. ACM (2011)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Martella, C., Gedik, E., Cabrera-Quiros, L., Englebienne, G., Hung, H.: How was it? exploiting smartphone sensing to measure implicit audience responses to live performances. In: Proceedings of the 23rd ACM International Conference on Multimedia, MM 2015, pp. 201–210. ACM, New York (2015)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    O’Brien, H.L., Toms, E.G.: What is user engagement? a conceptual framework for defining user engagement with technology. J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. Technol. 59(6), 938–955 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Picard, R.: Affective media and wearables: surprising findings. In: Proceedings of the 22nd ACM International Conference on Multimedia, MM 2014, pp. 3–4. ACM, New York (2014)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Picard, R.W.: Automating the recognition of stress and emotion: from lab to real-world impact. IEEE MultiMedia 23(3), 3–7 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Röggla, T., Wang, C., César, P.S.: Analysing audience response to performing events: a web platform for interactive exploration of physiological sensor data. In: Proceedings of the 23rd ACM International Conference on Multimedia, MM 2015, pp. 749–750. ACM, New York (2015)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Russell, J.A.: Evidence of convergent validity on the dimensions of affect. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 36(10), 1152 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schubert, T., Friedmann, F., Regenbrecht, H.: The experience of presence: factor analytic insights. Presence 10(3), 266–281 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schubert, T.W., Otten, S.: Overlap of self, ingroup, and outgroup: pictorial measures of self-categorization. Self Identity 1(4), 353–376 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    See-To, E.W., Papagiannidis, S., Cho, V.: User experience on mobile video appreciation: How to engross users and to enhance their enjoyment in watching mobile video clips. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 79(8), 1484–1494 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shanken, E.A.: Art and Electronic Media. Phaidon Press Limited, London (2009)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tseng, Y.-C., Huang, Y.-C., Wu, K.-Y., Chin, C.-P.: Dinner of luciérnaga: an interactive play with iphone app in theater. In: Proceedings of the 20th ACM International Conference on Multimedia, MM 2012, pp. 559–568. ACM, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang, C., Geelhoed, E.N., Stenton, P.P., Cesar, P.: Sensing a live audience. In: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1909–1912. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Witmer, B.G., Singer, M.F.: Measuring presence in virtual environments. Technical report, DTIC Document (1994)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhu, Y., Heynderickx, I., Redi, J.A.: Understanding the role of social context and user factors in video quality of experience. Comput. Hum. Behav. 49, 412–426 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Najereh Shirzadian
    • 1
  • Judith A. Redi
    • 2
  • Thomas Röggla
    • 1
  • Alice Panza
    • 1
  • Frank Nack
    • 3
  • Pablo Cesar
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centrum Wiskunde & InformaticaAmsterdamNetherlands
  2. 2.Delft University of TechnologyDelftNetherlands
  3. 3.University of AmsterdamAmsterdamNetherlands

Personalised recommendations