Brothers in Arms: Racial Equality in the Saint-Dominguan Colonial Forces
White men of all ranks within the French Atlantic military played important roles in the Haitian Revolution. During the Haitian Revolution, colonial advancements culminated in the formation of an integrated army set up by the second French civil commission to defend Saint-Domingue from British and Spanish invasion in 1793. The Legions of the Equality, largely overlooked by previous scholars, differed from Old Regime and early revolutionary military units in that their officers were both white and black, and white soldiers frequently served under black commanders. Fighting internal and external enemies, adapting to revolutionary changes, and negotiating across racial and geographic lines, white soldiers and officers were instrumental in the military achievements of the Haitian Revolution.