The Geology of the Panama-Chocó Arc

  • Stewart D. Redwood
Part of the Frontiers in Earth Sciences book series (FRONTIERS)


The Panama-Chocó Arc is a composite volcano-plutonic island arc of Late Cretaceous to Miocene age developed on ocean crust of the Caribbean large igneous province (CLIP) on the western or trailing edge of the Caribbean Plate. An early arc of Late Cretaceous to Eocene age developed by northerly or north-easterly subduction of the Farallon Plate to form the volcano-plutonic rocks of the Chagres, Mamoní, San Blas, Atrato and Mandé Mountains. Arc shutdown in the middle Eocene was coincident with a change from compressional to extensional tectonics, with graben development in the fore-arc to form the Chuqunaque-Tuira-Atrato Basins; the opening of the Panama Canal Basin in a radial rift basin; and block rotations and displacements. This extension and arc break-up may be explained by steepening of the subducting Farallon Plate by slab rollback and ultimately break-off, and/or initial oblique collision of the eastern part of the Panama-Chocó Arc with South America in the Istmina area as a result of consumption of the proto-Caribbean Plate beneath South America. Following the break-up of the Farallon Plate at 25–23 Ma (late Oligocene), a short-lived later arc, related to the NE-dipping subduction of the Nazca Plate, was formed to the south of the early arc and fore-arc basins in the Majé-Baudó Mountains and the Pearl Islands. Oblique collision of the Chocó Block of Colombia was complete by about the Early Miocene. Panama started to collide against South America in the Middle Miocene, a process which is still ongoing. The Nazca Plate convergence with Panama changed to left-lateral strike-slip, resulting in the cessation of subduction and arc shutdown, formation of the east Panama deformed belt by left-lateral transpression, basin closure and uplift of the isthmus to create the land bridge with South America.


Darien San Blas Chagres Maje Chuqunaque Baudó Caribbean large igneous province (CLIP) Magmatic arc Sedimentary basin 


  1. Aspden JA, McCourt WJ, Brook M (1987) Geometrical control of subduction-related magmatism: the Mesozoic and Cenozoic plutonic history of Western Colombia. J Geol Soc Lond 144:893–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Avé Lallemant HG, Sisson VB (2005) Caribbean-South American plate interactions, Venezuela, Geological Society of America special paper no. 394. Geological Society of America, Boulder, p 331Google Scholar
  3. Bacon CD, Silvestro D, Jaramillo C, Smith BT, Chakrabarty P, Antonelli A (2015) Biological evidence supports an early and complex emergence of the Isthmus of Panama. Proc Natl Acad Sci 112:6110–6115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bacon CD, Molnar P, Antonelli A, Crawford AJ, Montes C, Vallejo-Pareja MC (2016) Quaternary glaciation and the Great American Biotic Interchange. Geology 44:357–378Google Scholar
  5. Bandy OL, Casey RE (1973) Reflector horizons and paleobathymetric history, eastern Panama. Geological Society of AmericaBulletin 84:3081–3086Google Scholar
  6. Barat F (2013) Nature et structure de l’isthme inter-américain, Panama: implication sur la reconstitution et l’évolution géodynamique de la plaque Caraїbe. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Nice-Sophia, p 273Google Scholar
  7. Barat F, Mercier de Lépinay B, Sosson M, Müller C, Baumgartner PO, Baumgartner-Mora C (2014) Transition from the Farallon plate subduction to the collision between South and Central America: geological evolution of the Panama Isthmus. Tectonophysics 622:145–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bartoli G, Sarnthein M, Weinelt M, Erlenkeuser H, Garbe-Schönberg D, Lea DW (2005) Final closure of Panama and the onset of northern hemisphere glaciation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 237:33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beckelmyer RL (1947) Columnar section of Rio Chico and tributaries Traverse, Darien province, Panama. Unpublished report, Sinclair Oil Company, p 1–7Google Scholar
  10. Bedoya G, Cediel F, Restrepo-Correa I, Cuartas C, Montenegro G, Marin-Cerón MI, Mojica J, Cerón R (2009) Aportes al conocimiento de la evolución geológica de las cuencas Atrato y San Juan dentro del arco Panamá-Chocó. Boletin de Geología 31(2):69–81Google Scholar
  11. Bertrand M, Zürcher P (1899) Etude géologique sur l’isthme de Panama. Paris, Compagnie Nouvelle de Canal de Panama, Rapport de la Commission, app 1Google Scholar
  12. Bourgois J, Azéma J, Touron J, Bellon H, Calle B, Parra E, Toussaint J, Glaçon G, Feinberg H, De Weber P, Origlia I (1982) Ages et structures des complexes basiques et ultrabasiques de la façade pacifique entre 3° N et 12° N (Colombie, Panama et Costa-Rica). Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 24:545–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buchs DM, Arculus RJ, Baumgartner PO, Baumgartner-Mora C, Ulianov A (2010) Late Cretaceous arc development on the SW margin of the Caribbean Plate: Insights from the Golfito, Costa Rica, and Azuero, Panama, complexes. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 11:Q07S24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buchs DM, Baumgartner PO, Baumgartner-Mora C, Flores D, Bandini AN (2011) Upper Cretaceous to Miocene tectonostratigraphy of the Azuero area (Panama) and the discontinuous accretion and subduction erosion along the Middle American margin. Tectonophysics 512:31–46Google Scholar
  15. Camacho E, Hutton W, Pacheco JF (2010) A new look at evidence for a Wadati-Benioff zone and active convergence at the North Panama Deformed Belt. Bull Seismol Soc Am 100:343–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Case JE (1974) Oceanic crust forms basement of eastern Panama. Geol Soc Am Bull 85:645–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Case JE, Lopez RA, Moore WR (1971) Tectonic investigations in western Colombia and eastern Panama. Geol Soc Am Bull 82:2685–2712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cediel F, Cáceres C (2000) Geological map of Colombia, 3rd edn. Geotec Ltda, Bogotá. 7 thematic maps at 1:1,000,000 scaleGoogle Scholar
  19. Cediel F, Restrepo I (2011) Geology and Hydrocarbon Potential, Atrato, San Juan and Urabá Basins. University EAFIT, Medellin, Colombia (Petroleum Geology of Colombia series, Vol. 3, F. Cediel (ed)), 104 pGoogle Scholar
  20. Cediel F, Shaw RP, Cáceres C (2003) Tectonic assembly of the northern Andean block. In: Bartolini C, Buffler RT, Blickwede J (eds) The Circum-Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean: hydrocarbon habitats, basin formation, and plate tectonics, AAPG memoir 79. American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, pp 815–848Google Scholar
  21. Coates AG, Stallard RF (2013) How old is the Isthmus of Panama? Bull Mar Sci 89:801–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coates AG, Jackson JBC, Collins LS, Cronin TS, Dowsett HJ, Bybell LM, Jung P, Obando JA (1992) Closure of the Isthmus of Panama: the near-shore marine record of Costa Rica and Panama. Geol Soc Am Bull 104:814–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Coates AG, Collins LS, Aubry MP, Berggren WA (2004) The Geology of the Darien, Panama, and the late Miocene-Pliocene collision of the Panama arc with northwestern South America. Geol Soc Am Bull 116:1327–1344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Corral I, Cardellach E, Corbella M, Canals A, Gómez-Gras D, Griera A, Cosca MA (2016) Cerro Quema (Azuero Peninsula, Panama): geology, alteration, mineralization, and geochronology of a volcanic dome-hosted high-sulfidation Au-Cu deposit. Econ Geol 111:287–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cronin P (2017) Caving in Panama 2017. Report of the 2017 Anglo-Irish Expedition, 39 p (
  26. Defant MJ, Richerson PM, De Boer JZ, Stewart RH, Maury RC, Bellon H, Drummond MS, Feigenson MD, Jackson TE (1991) Dacite genesis via both slab melting and differentiation: petrogenesis of La Yeguada volcanic complex, Panama. J Petrol 32:1101–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dengo G, Case JE (eds) (1990) The Caribbean region, The geology of North America, Vol. H. Geological Society of America, Boulder, p 528Google Scholar
  28. Derksen SJ, Coon HL, Shannon PJ (2003) Eastern gulf of Panama exploration potential. AAPG search and discovery article #90017, AAPG international conference, Barcelona, 21–24 Sept 2003, p 7Google Scholar
  29. Duque-Caro H (1990) The Choco block in the northwestern corner of South America: structural, tectonostratigraphic, and paleogeographic implications. J S Am Earth Sci 3:71–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Esso Exploration and Production Panama (1970) Annual Report Corresponding to the Second Year of Exploration Conforming to Contract 59, Darien Basin, October 19690September 1970. Unpublished report by Esso Exploration and Production Panama for Department of Mineral Resources, Government of Panama 44 pGoogle Scholar
  31. Etayo Serna F, Barrero D, Lozano H, Espinosa A, González H, Orrego A, Ballesteros I, Forero H, Ramírez C, Zambrano Ortiz F, Duque Caro H, Vargas R, Núñez A, Álvarez J, Ropaín C, Cardozo E, Galvis N, Sarmiento L, Alberts JP, Case JE, Singer DA, Bowen RW, Berger BR, Cox DP, Hodges CA (1985) Mapa de terrenos geológicos de Colombia. INGEOMINAS, Bogotá. Publicaciones Geológicas Especiales del INGEOMINAS 14(1):135Google Scholar
  32. Farris DW, Jaramillo C, Bayona G, Restrepo-Moreno SA, Montes C, Cardona A, Mora A, Speakman RJ, Glascock MD, Valencia V (2011) Fracturing of the Panamanian Isthmus during initial collision with South America. Geology 39:1007–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Farris DW, Cardona A, Montes C, Foster D, Jaramillo C (2017) Magmatic evolution of Panama Canal volcanic rocks: a record of arc processes and tectonic change. PLoS One 12(5):44 e0176010. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Foley JY, Light TD, Nelson SW, Harris RA (1997) Mineral occurrences associated with mafic-ultramafic and related alkaline complexes in Alaska. In: Goldfarb RJ, Miller LD (eds) Mineral deposits of Alaska, Economic geology monograph. Economic Geology Publishing Company, El Paso, Texas, USA 9:396–449Google Scholar
  35. González H (2001) Mapa Geológico del Departamento de Antioquia, Escala 1:400,000, Memoria Explicativa. INGEOMINAS, Bogotá, 240 pGoogle Scholar
  36. González JL, Shen Z, Mauz B (2014) New constraints on Holocene uplift rates for the Baudo Mountain range, northwestern Colombia. J S Am Earth Sci 52:194–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Goosens PJ, Rose WI, Flores D (1977) Geochemistry of Tholeiites of the basic igneous complex of north-western South America. Bull Geol Soc Am 88:1711–1720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Governor of the Panama Canal (1947a) Isthmian Canal Studies, Appendix 2, Routes Studied. Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal to 79th Congress of the United States, 1st Session, p 225Google Scholar
  39. Governor of the Panama Canal (1947b) Isthmian Canal Studies, Appendix 8, Geology. Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal to 79th Congress of the United States, 1st Session, p 84Google Scholar
  40. Governor of the Panama Canal (1949) Special Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal on the Atrato-Truando Canal Route. Report to 79th Congress of the United States, 1st Session, 20 p + 31 p ApendicesGoogle Scholar
  41. Groeneveld J, Hathorne EC, Steinke S, DeBey H, Mackensen A, Tiedemann R (2014) Glacial induced closure of the Panamanian gateway during marine isotope stages (MIS) 95–100 (~2.5 Ma). Earth Planet Sci Lett 404:296–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Haug GH, Tiedemann R (1998) Effect of the formation of the Isthmus of Panama on Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation. Nature 393:673–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Howe E (1907) Isthmian geology and the Panama Canal. Econ Geol 2:639–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. INGEOMINAS (n.d.) Batolito de Mandé. Catálogo de las Unidades Litoestratigráficas de Colombia. Report by INGEOMINAS, p 19Google Scholar
  45. Interoceanic Canal Study Commission (1968) Panama Canal Investigation Route 10, p 32Google Scholar
  46. James K, Lorente MA, Pindell J (eds) (2009) The origin and evolution of the Caribbean plate. Geol Soc Lond Spec Pub 328:686Google Scholar
  47. Jaramillo C, Montes C, Cardona A, Silvestro D, Antonelli A, Bacon CD (2017) Comment (1) on “Formation of the Isthmus of Panama” by O’Dea et al. Sci Adv 3(2017):e1602321. p 8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jones SM (1950) Geology of Gatun Lake and vicinity, Panama. Bull Geol Soc Am 61:893–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Keigwin L (1982) Isotopic paleoceanography of the Caribbean and East Pacific: role of Panama uplift in late neogene time. Science 217:350–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kellogg JN, Vega V (1995) Tectonic development of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian Andes: constraints from global positioning system geodetic studies and gravity. In: Mann P (ed) Geologic and tectonic development of the Caribbean plate boundary in southern Central America, Geological Society of America special paper 295. Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 75–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kennan L, Pindell J (2009) Dextral shear, terrane accretion and basin formation in the Northern Andes: best explained by interaction with a Pacific-derived Caribbean plate? In: James K, Lorente MA, Pindell J (eds) The origin and evolution of the Caribbean plate, Geological Society of London, special publication, vol 328. Geological Society, London, pp 487–531Google Scholar
  52. Kerr AC, Marriner GF, Tarney J, Nivia A, Saunders AD, Thirlwall MF, Sinton CW (1997) Cretaceous basaltic terranes in Western Colombia: elemental, chronological and Sr-Nd isotopic constraints on petrogenesis. J Petrol 38:677–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kesler SE, Sutter JF, Issigonis MJ, Jones LM, Walker RL (1977) Evolution of porphyry copper mineralization in an Oceanic Island Arc: Panama. Econ Geol 72:1142–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kirby MX, MacFadden B (2005) Was southern Central America an archipelago or a peninsula in the middle Miocene? A test using land-mammal body size. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 228:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kirby MX, Jones DS, MacFadden BJ (2008) Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula. PLoS One 3(7):e2791. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leal-Mejía H (2011) Phanerozoic gold metallogeny in the Colombian Andes: a tectono-magmatic approach. Unpublished PhD thesis, Universitat de Barcelona, p 999Google Scholar
  57. Leigh EG, O’Dea A, Vermeij GJ (2013) Historical biogeography of the Isthmus of Panama. Biol Rev 89:148–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lissinna B (2005) A profile through the Central American Landbridge in western Panama: 115 Ma Interplay between the Galápagos hotspot and the Central American subduction zone. PhD thesis, Christian-Albrechts-Univesität, Kiel, p 102Google Scholar
  59. Lonsdale P, Klitgord KM (1978) Structure and tectonic history of the eastern Panama Basin. Geol Soc Am Bull 89:981–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. MacDonald DF (1915) Some engineering problems of the Panama Canal in their relation to geology and topography, U.S. Bureau of Mines bulletin no. 86. Govt. Print. Off, Washington, DC, p 88Google Scholar
  61. MacDonald H (1969) Geological evaluation of radar imagery from Darien Province, Panama. Mod Geol 1:1–63Google Scholar
  62. MacFadden BJ (2006) North American Miocene land mammals from Panama. J Vertebr Paleontol 26(3):720–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mann P (1995) Geologic and tectonic development of the Caribbean Plate boundary in Southern Central America, Geological Society of America special paper no. 295. Geological Society of America, Boulder, p 349Google Scholar
  64. Mann P, Kolarsky RA (1995) East Panama deformed belt: structure, age, and neotectonic significance. In: Mann P (ed) Geologic and tectonic development of the Caribbean Plate boundary in Southern Central America, Geological Society of America special paper no. 295. Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 111–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Marshall LG, Webb SD, Sepkoski JJ Jr, Raup DM (1982) Mammalian evolution and the great American interchange. Science 215:1351–1357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McCourt WJ, Aspden JA, Brook M (1984) New geological and geochronological data from the Colombian Andes: continental growth by multiple accretion. J Geol Soc Lond 141:831–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McReady W, Ward R (1960) Anticipated thickness and lithology of formations in Darien province, Panama. Unpublished report, Delhi-Taylor Oil Company, p 1–14Google Scholar
  68. Molnar P (2008) Closing of the central American seaway and the ice age: a critical review. Paleoceanography 23:PA2201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Molnar P (2017) Comment (2) on “Formation of the Isthmus of Panama” by O’Dea et al. Sci Adv 3(2017):e1602320. p 4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Montes C, Cardona A, Bayona G, Farris D (2011) Field trip guide: evidence for middle Eocene and younger emergence in Central Panama. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama, p 24Google Scholar
  71. Montes C, Bayona G, Cardona A, Buchs DM, Silva CA, Morón S, Hoyos N, Ramírez DA, Jaramillo CA, Valencia V (2012a) Arc-continent collision and orocline formation: closing of the Central American seaway. J Geophys Res 117:B04105. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Montes C, Cardona A, McFadden R, Morón SE, Silva CA, Restrepo-Moreno S, Ramírez DA, Hoyos N, Wilson J, Farris D, Bayona GA, Jaramillo CA, Valencia V, Bryan J, Flores JA (2012b) Evidence for middle Eocene and younger land emergence in central Panama: implications for Isthmus closure. Geol Soc Am Bull 124:780–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Montes C, Cardona A, Jaramillo C, Pardo A, Silva JC, Valencia V, Ayala C, Pérez-Angel LC, Rodriguez-Parra LA, Ramirez V, Niño H (2015) Middle Miocene closure of the Central American seaway. Science 348(6231):226–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Muñoz R, Salinas R, James M, Bergmann H, Tistl M (1990) Mineralizaciones primarias de minerales del grupo del platino y oro en la cuenca de los ríos Condoto e Iro (Chocó-Colombia), Informe Tecnico Final. BGR & INGEOMINAS, Medellin, p 330Google Scholar
  75. Nelson CE (2006) Metallic mineral resources. In: Bundschuh J, Alvarado G (eds) Central America: Geology, Resources and Hazards. Balkema, London. Chapter 32 p, pp 885–915Google Scholar
  76. O’Dea A, Lessios HA, Coates AG, Eytan RI, Restrepo-Moreno SA, Cione AL, Collins LS, de Queiroz A, Farris DW, Norris RD, Stallard RF, Woodburne MO, Aguilera O, Aubry MP, Berggren WA, Budd AF, Cozzuol MA, Coppard SE, Duque-Caro H, Finnegan W, Gasparini GM, Grossman EL, Johnson KG, Keigwin LD, Knowlton N, Leigh RG, Leonard-Pingel JS, Marko PB, Pyenson ND, Rachello-Dolmen PG, Soibelzon E, Soibelzon L, Todd JA, Vermeij GJ, Jackson JBC (2016) Formation of the Isthmus of Panama. Sci Adv 2(8):e1600883. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pindell J, Kennan L (2009) Tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean and northern South America in the mantle reference frame: an update. In: James K, Lorente MA, Pindell J (eds) The origin and evolution of the Caribbean plate, Geological Society of London, special publication, vol 328. Geological Society, London, pp 1–55Google Scholar
  78. Ramirez DA, Foster DA, Min K, Montes C, Cardona A, Sadove G (2016) Exhumation of the Panama basement complex and basins: implications for the closure of the Central American seaway. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 17:1758–1777. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Reed DL, Silver EA (1995) Sediment dispersal and accretionary growth of the North Panama deformed belt. In: Mann P (ed) Geologic and tectonic development of the Caribbean plate boundary in Southern Central America, Geological Society of America special paper 295. Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 213–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Reeves F, Ross CP (1930) A geologic study of the Madden Dam project, Alhajuela, Canal Zone, United States Geological Survey Bulletin 821-B. U.S. G.P.O, Washington, DC, pp 11–47Google Scholar
  81. Restrepo JJ, Toussaint JF (1988) Terranes and continental accretion in the Colombian Andes. Episodes 11:189–193Google Scholar
  82. Retallack GJ, Kirby MX (2007) Middle Miocene global change and paleogeography of Panama. PALAIOS 22:667–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rockwell TK, Bennett RA, Gath E, Franceschi P (2010a) Unhinging an indenter: a new tectonic model for the internal deformation of Panama. Tectonics 29.
  84. Rockwell T, Gath E, González T, Madden C, Verdugo D, Lippincott C, Dawson T, Owen LA, Fuchs M, Cadena A, Williams P, Weldon E, Franceschi P (2010b) Neotectonics and paleoseismicity of the Limón and Pedro Miguel faults in Panamá: earthquake hazard to the Panamá Canal. Bull Seismol Soc Am 100:3097–3129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rodriguez G, Arango MI (2013) Formación Barroso: arco volcanico toleitico y diabasas de San José de Urama: un prisma acrecionario T-MORB en el segmento norte de la Cordillera Occidental de Colombia. Boletín de Ciencias de la Tierra 33:p17–p38Google Scholar
  86. Rooney TO, Franceschi P, Hall CM (2011) Water-saturated magmas in the Panama Canal region: a precursor to adakite-like magma generation? Contrib Mineral Petrol 161:373–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schmidt et al (1947) Panama Canal route 10. Isthmian Canal Commission report, p 10Google Scholar
  88. Schmidt-Thomé M, Feldhaus L, Salazar G, Muñoz R (1992) Explicación del mapa geológico, escala 1:250,000, del flanco oeste de la Cordillera Occidental entre los ríos Andágueda y Murindó, Departamentos Antioquia y Choco, República de Colombia. Geologisches Jahrbuch 78:1–23. and 1 map at 1:250,000 scaleGoogle Scholar
  89. Shelton BJ (1952) Geology and petroleum prospects of Darien, southeastern Panama. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Oregon State College, Corvallis, Oregon, USA, 62 pGoogle Scholar
  90. Sillitoe RH, Jaramillo L, Damon PE, Shafiqullah M, Escovar R (1982) Setting, characteristics, and age of the Andean porphyry Copper Belt in Colombia. Econ Geol 77:1837–1850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stewart RH, Stewart JL, Woodring WP (1980) Geologic map of the Panama Canal and vicinity, Republic of Panama. United States Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1232, scale 1:100,000Google Scholar
  92. Strong N, Hendrickson M, Farris D, Rodríguez F, Pérez A, Del Valle Y, De Gracia C, O’Dea A (2011) Geología de la Comarca de Kuna Yala. Poster, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, PanamaGoogle Scholar
  93. Suter F, Sartori M, Neuwerth R, Gorin G (2008) Structural imprints at the front of the Chocó-Panama indenter: field data from the North Cauca Valley basin, Central Colombia. Tectonophysics 460:134–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Terry RA (1956) A geological reconnaissance of Panama, Occasional papers of the California Academy of Sciences, no. 23. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, p 91Google Scholar
  95. Tistl M (1994) Geochemistry of platinum-group elements of the zoned ultramafic Alto Condoto Complex, Northwest Colombia. Econ Geol 89:158–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tistl M, Burgath KP, Höhndorf A, Kreuzer H, Muñoz R, Salinas R (1994) Origin and emplacement of Tertiary ultramafic complexes in northwest Colombia: evidence from geochemistry and K-Ar, Sm-ND and Rb-Sr isotopes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 126:41–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Trenkamp R, Kellogg JN, Freymueller JT, Mora HP (2002) Wide plate margin deformation, southern Central America and northwestern South America, CASA GPS observations. J S Am Earth Sci 15:157–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Webb SD (2006) The great American biotic interchange: patterns and processes. Ann Mo Bot Gard 93:245–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Weber M, Gómez-Tapias J, Cardona A, Duarte E, Pardo-Trujillo A, Valencia VA (2015) Geochemistry of the Santa Fé Batholith and Buriticá Tonalite in NW Colombia and evidence of subduction initiation beneath the Colombian Caribbean Plateau. J S Am Earth Sci 62:257–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wegner W, Wörner G, Harmon RS, Jicha BR (2011) Magmatic history and evolution of the Central American Land Bridge in Panama since Cretaceous times. Geol Soc Am Bull 123:703–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Westbrook GK, Hardy NC, Heath RP (1995) Structure and tectonics of the Panama-Nazca plate boundary. In: Mann P (ed) Geologic and tectonic development of the Caribbean Plate boundary in Southern Central America, Geological Society of America special paper 295. Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 91–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Weyl R (1980) Geology of Central America. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, p 371Google Scholar
  103. Whattam SA, Montes C, McFadden RR, Cardona A, Ramirez D, Valencia V (2012) Age and origin of earliest adakitic-like magmatism in Panama: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc system. Lithos 142-143:226–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Woodring WP (1957) Geology and paleontology of Canal Zone and adjoining parts of Panama: geology and descriptions of Tertiary molluscs (Gastropods: Trochidae to Turritellidae). US Geol Surv Prof Pap 306-A:145. + 2 platesGoogle Scholar
  105. Woodring WP (1966) The Panama land bridge as a sea barrier. Proc Am Philos Soc 110(p):425–433Google Scholar
  106. Woodring WP (1982) Geology and paleontology of Canal Zone and adjoining parts of Panama. Chapter 306-F: description of Tertiary molluscs (Pelecypods: Propeamussiidae to Cuspidariidae; Additions to Families Covered in P 306-E; Additions to Gastropods; Cephalopods). US Geol Surv Prof Pap 306-F:iv. p. + p. 541–759 + Plates 83–125. Plate 125: Geologic Map of the Panama Canal and Vicinity, Republic of Panamá, compiled by R. H. and J. L. Stewart with the collaboration of W. P. Woodring, 1:100,000 scaleGoogle Scholar
  107. Wörner G, Harmon RS, Hartmann G, Simon K (2005) Igneous geology and geochemistry of the upper Río Chagres Basin. In: Harmon RS (ed) The Río Chagres, Panama. A multidisciplinary profile of a tropical watershed, Water science and technology library, vol 52. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 65–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wörner G, Harmon RS, Wegner W, Singer B (2006) Linking America’s backbone: geological development and basement rocks of central Panama. In: Abstracts with programs, Geological Society of America conference “Backbone of the Americas” Mendoza, Argentina, Geological Society of America, Boulder, 3–7 Apr 2006, p 60Google Scholar
  109. Wörner G, Harmon RS, Wegner W (2009) Geochemical evolution of igneous rocks and changing magma sources during the formation and closure of the Central American land bridge of Panama. In: Kay SM, Ramos VA, Dickinson WR (eds) Backbone of the Americas: shallow subduction, plateau uplift, and ridge and terrane collision, Geological Society of America memoir 204. Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 183–196Google Scholar
  110. Wyse LNB (1877) L’exploration de L’Isthme du Darien en 1876–1877. Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie, Paris, Serie 6 14:561–580Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stewart D. Redwood
    • 1
  1. 1.Consulting Economic GeologistPanama CityPanama

Personalised recommendations