Advertisement

Men with a Hobby: Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs, News Media and Image Politics

  • Willem Koetsenruijter
  • Peter Burger
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Risk, Crime and Society book series (PSRCS)

Abstract

‘Men with a hobby’ is the Dutch expression that fits the way club members of outlaw motor gangs are sometimes represented in news media. On the other hand, there are frames of organized crime that are used. The first one has the risk of looking too soft, the second the risk of exposing yourself too much as a criminal. Managing a fine balance between these two frames is hard work for club members. In this chapter the authors show which rhetorical strategies are used to keep the fine balance between tough criminals and innocent men with a hobby.

Bibliography

  1. Andersen, Unn Conradi, and Arne H. Krumsvik. 2017. Talking Back: Bikers’ Mediated Self-Representation. International Journal of Motorcycle Studies 13. Retrieved on June 21, 2017 via https://motorcyclestudies.org/volume-13.
  2. Austin, D., Patricia Gagné, and Angela Orend. 2010. Commodification and Popular Imagery of the Biker in American Culture. The Journal of Popular Culture 43 (5): 942–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bakker, Shannon. 2017. Alles wat Onze Lieve Heer en de majesteit verboden heeft. MA Thesis, Leiden University.Google Scholar
  4. Barger, S. 2001. Hell’s Angel: The Life and Times of Sonny Barger and the Hell’s Angels Motorcycle Club. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  5. Barker, Thomas. 2007. Biker Gangs and Organized Crime. New Ark: M. Bender.Google Scholar
  6. ———. 2014. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs as Organized Crime Groups. Cham, etc.: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  7. Beare, Margaret E. 2009. Moral Panics and ‘Exceptional Crimes.’. (PowerPoint, Cited in Katz 2011).Google Scholar
  8. Beare, Margaret E., and Chris Hogg. 2013. Listening in… to Gang Culture. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 55 (3): 421–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Best, Joel. 2008. Social Problems. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  10. Blokland, Arjan, Lonneke van Hout, Wouter van der Leest, and Melvin Soudijn. 2017. Not Your Average Biker; Criminal Careers of Members of Dutch Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. Trends in Organized Crime, 1–24. Online First: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-017-9303-x.
  11. Boorstin, Daniel J. 1962. The Image, or, What Happened to the American Dream. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, Stanley. 2002. Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  13. Dan Nimmo, and Combs, James. 1983. Mediated Political Realities. Harlowe: Longman Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  14. Dayan, Daniel, and Elihu Katz. 1993. Media Events: The Live Broadcasting of History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Dekker, Tessa. 2015. Motorbendes in de Media: een casestudy naar het concept moral panic. MA Thesis, Leiden University.Google Scholar
  16. Entman, Robert M. 1993. Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm. Journal of Communication 43 (4): 51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferrell, Jeff, and Clinton R. Sanders, eds. 1995. Cultural Criminology. Boston: North Eastern University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Ferrel, Jeff, Keith Hayward, and Jock Young. 2008. Cultural Criminology: An Invitation. Los Angeles/London: Sage.Google Scholar
  19. Fuglsang, Ross Stuart. 2001. Framing the Motorcycle Outlaw. In Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World, ed. Stephen Reese, Oscar H. Gandy Jr., and E. August, 185–194. Mawah: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Fuglsang, R.S. 2003. Framing the Motorcycle Outlaw. In Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World, ed. S.D. Reese, O.H. Gandy Jr., and A.E. Grant, 185–194. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Geurtjens, Kim, Hans Nelen, and Miet Vanderhallen. 2018. From Bikers to Gangsters: On the Development of and the Public Response to Outlaw Biker Clubs in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. In Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs and Street Gangs: Scheming Legality, Resisting Criminalization, ed. Tereza Kuldova and Martin Sanchez-Jankowski. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  22. Gitlin, Todd. 1980. The Whole World Is Watching: Mass Media in the Making & Unmaking of the New Left. Los Angeles/London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  23. Goffman, Erving. 1959. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. London: Harmondsworth.Google Scholar
  24. Goldsworthy, Terry, and Laura McGillivray. 2017. An Examination of Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs and Their Involvement in the Illicit Drug Market and the Effectiveness of Anti-association Legislative Responses. International Journal of Drug Policy 41: 110–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grennan, Sean, Marjie T. Britz, Jeffrey Rush, and Thomas Barker. 2000. Gangs: An International Approach. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  26. Hayward, Keith J., and Jock Young. 2004. Cultural Criminology: Some Notes on the Script. Theoretical Criminology 8 (3): 259–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hobsbawm, Eric J. 1971. Primitive Rebels. Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  28. ———. 1972. Bandits. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  29. Jenkins, Philip. 1995. Clergy Sexual Abuse: The Symbolic Politics of a Social Problem. In Images of Issues. Typifying Contemporary Social Problems, ed. Joel Best, 2nd ed., 105–130. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  30. ———. 2001. Pedophiles and Priests. Anatomy of a Contemporary Crisis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Katz, Karen. 2011. The Enemy Within: The Outlaw Motorcycle Gang Moral Panic. American Journal of Criminal Justice 36 (3): 231–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Koetsenruijter, Willem, and Peter Burger. 2017. Institutional Failure or Individual Perversity? Framing Church Abuse in the News in Four European Countries. Rhetoric and Communication E-journal 28. Retrieved on August 22, 2017 from http://rhetoric.bg/.
  33. Kooistra, Paul. 1989. Criminals as Heroes: Structure, Power & Identity. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Kreemers, H.P.M. 2011. De ‘Woodstock-defense’ en seksueel misbruik van minderjarigen in de Nederlandse Rooms-Katholieke Kerkprovincie. In Seksueel misbruik van minderjarigen in de Rooms-Katholieke Kerk. Uitgebreide versie deel 2: De achtergrondstudies en essays, ed. W. Deetman, 149–155. Amsterdam: Balans.Google Scholar
  35. Kuldova, Tereza. 2017a. When Elites and Outlaws Do Philanthropy: On the Limits of Private Vices for Public Benefit. Trends in Organized Crime, Online First: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-017-9323-6.
  36. ———. 2017b. The Sublime Splendour of Intimidation: On the Outlaw Biker Aesthetics of Power. Visual Anthropology 30 (5): 379–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. ———. 2018. Outlaw Bikers Between Identity Politics and Civil Rights. In Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs and Street Gangs: Scheming Legality, Resisting Criminalization, ed. Tereza Kuldova and Martin Sanchez-Jankowski. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  38. Kuldova, Tereza, and James Quinn. 2018. Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs and Struggles over Legitimization. In Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs and Street Gangs: Scheming Legality, Resisting Criminalization, ed. Tereza Kuldova and Martin Sanchez-Jankowski. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  39. Kuldova, Tereza. forthcoming. Roaring Mechanical Solidarity. What Binds Outlaw Bikers Together? Journal of Motorcycle Studies.Google Scholar
  40. Lanjouw, J., and P. Burger. 2013. Criminals as Heroes. News Media Rhetoric in the Heineken Kidnap Case. In Verbal and Visual Rhetoric in a Media World, ed. H. Van Belle, P. Gillaerts, B. Van Gorp, D. Van de Mieroop, and K. Rutten, 289–307. Leiden: Leiden University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Lowe, M. 1988. Conspiracy of Brothers. Toronto: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  42. Lyng, Stephen, and Mitchell Bracey. 1995. Squaring the One Percent: Biker Style and the Selling of Cultural Resistance. In Cultural Criminology, ed. Jeff Ferrell and Clinton R. Sanders, 235–276. Boston: North Eastern University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Mann, W.C., and S.A. Thompson. 1988. Rhetorical Structure Theory: Toward a Functional Theory of Text Organization. Text-Interdisciplinary Journal for the Study of Discourse 8 (3): 243–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McRobbie, Angela. 1994. Folk Devils Fight Back. New Left Review I / 203: 107–116.Google Scholar
  45. McRobbie, Angela, and Sarah L. Thornton. 1995. Rethinking ‘Moral Panic’ for Multi-mediated Social Worlds. British Journal of Sociology 46 (4): 559–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Montgomery, Randal. 1976. The Outlaw Motorcycle Subculture. Canadian Journal of Criminology & Corrections 18: 332–342.Google Scholar
  47. Piano, Ennio E. 2017. Free Riders: The Economics and Organization of Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. Public Choice 171 (3–4): 283–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Potter, Gary W., and Victor E. Kappeler. 1998. Constructing Crime: Perspectives on Making News and Social Problems. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.Google Scholar
  49. Presdee, Mike. 2000. Cultural Criminology and the Carnival of Crime. Mahwah: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Roks, R. 2016. In de h200d. Doctoral Dissertation, Erasmus School of Law, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  51. Roks, Robby, and R.J.H.M. Staring. 2008. Crime, Rhyme en de Media: een eigentijdse levensgeschiedenis van een Haagse Gangsta. In Culturele criminologie, ed. D. Siegel, F.H.M. van Gemert, and F. Bovenkerk, 161–173. Den Haag: Boom Juridische uitgevers.Google Scholar
  52. Scherer, H. 2008. Media Events and Pseudo-Events. In The International Encyclopedia of Communication, edited by Wolfgang Donsbach. Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on June 20, 2017 from http://www.communicationencyclopedia.com/subscriber/tocnode.html?id=g9781405131995_yr2015_chunk_g978140513199518_ss36-1.
  53. Schlesinger, Philip, and Howard Tumber. 1994. Reporting Crime: The Media Politics of Criminal Justice. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  54. Schutte, R.A. 2016. ‘We worden ten onrechte gecriminaliseerd.’ Een onderzoek naar het framegebruik van outlaw motorcycle gangs. MA Thesis, Leiden University.Google Scholar
  55. Schutten, Henk, Paul Vugts, and Bart Middelburg. 2004. Hells Angels in opmars: motorclub of misdaadbende? Utrecht: Monitor.Google Scholar
  56. Szczyrbak, Magdalena. 2015. Genre-Based Analysis of the Realisation of Concession in Judicial Discourse. Studia Linguistica Universitatis Iagellonicae Cracoviensis 126: 127–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Thompson, John B. 1995. The Media and Modernity: A Social Theory of the Media. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Van den Heuvel, John, and Bert Huisjes. 2009. De gevallen engel: één man tegen de Hells Angels. Schelluinen: House of Knowledge.Google Scholar
  59. Van Gorp, Baldwin. 2005. Where Is the Frame? Victims and Intruders in the Belgian Press Coverage of the Asylum Issue. European Journal of Communication 20 (4): 484–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. ———. 2006. Framing asiel: Indringers en slachtoffers in de pers. Leuven: Acco.Google Scholar
  61. Van Gorp, Baldwin, and Tom Vercruysse. 2012. Frames and Counter-Frames Giving Meaning to Dementia: A Framing Analysis of Media Content. Social Science & Medicine 74 (8): 1274–1281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Van Hellemont, Elke. 2018. Legalization by Commodification: The (Ir)relevance of Fashion Styles and Brands in Street Gangster Performance. In Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs and Street Gangs: Scheming Legality, Resisting Criminalization, ed. Tereza Kuldova and Martin Sanchez-Jankowski. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  63. De Vreese, Claes H. 2005. News Framing: Theory and Typology. Information Design Journal & Document Design 13 (1): 51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. de Vries, Peter R. 1983. De zaak Heineken. Leiden: Batteljee en Terpstra.Google Scholar
  65. Witsen, Femke. 2016. Wij zijn geen koorknapen, maar we zijn ook geen criminelen. Imagomanagement van de Hells Angels Motorcycle club Nederland in de Media. MA Thesis, Free University, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  66. Wolf, Daniel R. 1991. The Rebels: A Brotherhood of Outlaw Bikers. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  67. Wood, John. 2003. Hell’s Angels and the Illusion of the Counterculture. The Journal of Popular Culture 37 (2): 336–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Willem Koetsenruijter
    • 1
  • Peter Burger
    • 1
  1. 1.Leiden UniversityLeidenNetherlands

Personalised recommendations