Advertisement

Dutch Gang Talk: A Reflection on the Use of the Gang Label in the Netherlands

  • Robert A. Roks
  • Teun Van Ruitenburg
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Risk, Crime and Society book series (PSRCS)

Abstract

Roks and Van Ruitenburg notice that while Dutch state agencies have long been reluctant toward using the gang label, as of 2013, groups of bikers are referred to as ‘outlaw motorcycle gangs’ (OMCGs). The authors touch upon different aspects of ‘gang talk’ in the Netherlands. After tracing the history of the application of the term in the Netherlands, they explore two additional dimensions of gang talk by drawing on the results of two empirical studies. First, they describe how the Dutch Rollin 200 Crips have actively sought out the gang label, rather than having it cast upon them by others. In addition, they show how some of the Dutch OMCGs referred to as gangs and criminal organizations have actively resisted these labels in both the media and court. Roks and Van Ruitenburg conclude with problematizing the usage of the gang label by various actors involved in gang talk in the Netherlands.

Bibliography

  1. Abels, Romana, and Arlette Dwarkasing. 1994. Crips en Bloods, de padvinders van de grote stad. Trouw, June 18.Google Scholar
  2. Barker, Tom. 2015. Biker Gangs and Transnational Organized Crime. Waltham: Anderson Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. ———. 2017. Motorcycle Club or Criminal Gangs on Wheels. In Understanding the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. International Perspectives, ed. Andy Bain and Mark Lauchs, 7–27. Durham: Caroline Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Baudrillard, Jean. 1983. Simulations. New York: Semiotext(e).Google Scholar
  5. Beke, Balthazar, Anton van Wijk, and Henk Ferwerda. 2000. Jeugdcriminaliteit in groepsverband ontrafeld. Tussen rondhangen en bendevorming. Amsterdam: SWP.Google Scholar
  6. Blijboom, Michiel. 2015. Vechten voor mijn leven. Het bizarre bestaan van biker Henk Kuijpers. Meppel: Just Publishers/Veltman Distributie Bv.Google Scholar
  7. Blokland, Arjan, Melvin Soudijn, and Eric Teng. 2014. Een verkennend onderzoek naar criminele carrières van leden van 1%-motorclubs. Tijdschrift voor Criminologie 56: 3–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blokland, Arjan, Lonneke van Hout, Wouter van der Leest, and Melvin Soudijn. 2017a. Not Your Average Biker; Criminal Careers of Members of Dutch Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. Trends in Organized Crime. Online First: doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-017-9303-x.
  9. Blokland, Arjan, Melvin Soudijn, and Eric Teng. 2017b. Outlaw Biker in the Netherlands: Clubs, Social Criminal Organizations, or Gangs? In Understanding the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. International Perspectives, ed. Andy Bain and Mark Lauchs, 91–111. Durham: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  10. Conover, Patrick W. 1976. A Reassessment of Labelling Theory: A Constructive Response to Criticism. In The Uses of Controversy in Sociology, ed. Lewis A. Coser and Otto N. Larsen, 228–243. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  11. De Telegraaf. 2016. Veterans en Black Sheep geen criminele clubs. October 26.Google Scholar
  12. Dulaney, William Lee. 2006. Over the Edge and into the Abyss: The Communication of Organizational Identity in an Outlaw Motorcycle Club. PhD diss., Florida State University.Google Scholar
  13. Edwards, Adam, and Pete Gill. 2002. The Politics of ‘Transnational Organized Crime’: Discourse, Reflexivity and the Narration of ‘Threat’. The British Journal of Politics & International Relations 4: 245–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. van Ewijk, Hans. 2010. Youth Work in the Netherlands. History and Future Direction. In The History of Youth Work in Europe and Its Relevance for Youth Policy Today, ed. Griet Verschelden, Filip Cousée, Tineke van de Walle, and Howard Williamson, 69–82. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.Google Scholar
  15. Fijnaut, Cyrille, and Frank Bovenkerk. 1996. Georganiseerde criminaliteit in Nederland: Een analyse van de situatie in Amsterdam, Enquête Opsporingsmethoden, Bijlagen XI, Deelonderzoek IV, Kamerstuk 24072 nr. 20, Tweede Kamer, vergaderjaar 1995–1996. Den Haag: SDU.Google Scholar
  16. Ferwerda, Henk, and Tom van Ham. 2014. Problematische jeugdgroepen in Nederland. Omvang en aard in het najaar van 2013. Arnhem: Bureau Beke.Google Scholar
  17. ———. 2015. Problematische jeugdgroepen in Nederland. Omvang en aard in het najaar van 2014. Arnhem: Bureau Beke.Google Scholar
  18. Fraser, Alistair, and Colin Atkinson. 2014. Making Up Gangs: Looping, Labelling and the New Politics of Intelligence-led Policing. Youth Justice 14: 154–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fraser, Alistair, and John M. Hagedorn. 2016. Gangs and a Global Sociological Imagination. Theoretical Criminology. Online First: doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1362480616659129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fuglsang, Ross S. 2001. Framing the Motorcycle Outlaw. In Framing Public Life. Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World, ed. Stephen D. Reese, Oscar H. Grandy, and August E. Grant, 185–194. New Jersey/London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  21. Garot, Robert. 2010. Who You Claim: Performing Gang Identity in School and on the Streets. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  22. van Gemert, Frank H.M. 1998. Crips in drievoud; Een dossieronderzoek naar drie jeugdbendes. Amsterdam: Regioplan.Google Scholar
  23. ———. 2001. Crips in Orange; Gangs and Groups in the Netherlands. In The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. and Europe, ed. Malcolm W. Klein, Hans-Jürgen Kerner, Cheryl L. Maxson, and Elmar G.M. Weitekamp, 145–152. Dordrecht, Boston, London: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. ———. 2012. Five Decades of Defining Gangs in The Netherlands: The Eurogang Paradox in Practice. In Youth Gangs in International Perspective: Results from the Eurogang Program of Research, ed. Finn-Aage Esbensen and Cheryl L. Maxson, 69–84. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. van Gemert, Frank H.M., Dana Peterson, and Inger-Lise Lien, eds. 2008. Street Gangs, Migration and Ethnicity. Devon: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  26. van Gemert, Frank H.M., Robert A. Roks, and Marijke Drogt. 2016. Dutch Crips Run Dry in Liquid Society. In Gang Transitions and Transformations in an International Context, ed. Cheryl Maxson and Finn-Aage Esbensen, 157–172. Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Gouldner, Alvin W. 1968. The Sociologist as Partisan: Sociology and the Welfare State. The American Sociologist 3: 103–116.Google Scholar
  28. Groot Vlaardingen. 2015. No Surrender deelt kerstbomen uit bij voedselbank. December 10.Google Scholar
  29. Gruter, Paul, Michel Baas, and Dick Vegter. 1996. Problematische jeugdgroepen in de regio Haaglanden. Een inventarisatie onder wijkagenten en jeugdrechercheurs. Den Haag: Politie Haaglanden, Bureau Analyse en Research.Google Scholar
  30. Hagen, H.J. 1998. Motorcycle Gangs. Zoetermeer: Korps Landelijke Politie Diensten.Google Scholar
  31. Hallsworth, Simon. 2013. The Gang and Beyond: Interpreting Violent Street Worlds. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hallsworth, Simon, and Tara Young. 2008. Gang Talk and Gang Talkers: A Critique. Crime, Media, Culture 4: 175–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jones, Alexandra. 2013. One Size Does Not Fit All. Maatwerk voor opsporingsonderzoeken in CSV-beschrijvingen. Proces 96: 162–175.Google Scholar
  34. Katz, Karen. 2011. The Enemy Within: The Outlaw Motorcycle Gang Moral Panic. American Journal of Criminal Justice 36: 231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kloos, Jordi. 2014, August. Gebrandmerkt als criminelen. Nieuwe Revu: 33–37.Google Scholar
  36. Koninklijke Nederlandse Motorrijders Vereniging. 2016. OMG’s Versus Motorclubs. April 18. http://www.knmv.nl/Nieuws-motorrijden/2016/april/motorbendes-versus-motorclubs/html.
  37. Kuldova, Tereza. 2017a. The Sublime Splendour of Intimidation: On the Outlaw Biker Aesthetics of Power. Visual Anthropology 30 (5): 379–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. ———. 2017b. When Elites and Outlaws Do Philanthropy: On the Limits of Private Vices for Public Benefit. Trends in Organized Crime. Online First: doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-017-9323-6.
  39. Kuldova, Tereza, and James Quinn. 2018. Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs and Struggles over Legitimation. In Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs and Street Gangs: Scheming Legality, Resisting Criminalization, ed. Tereza Kuldova and Martin Sanchez-Jankowski. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  40. Lauchs, Mark. 2017. Nike Bikies. In Understanding the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. International Perspectives, ed. Andy Bain and Mark Lauchs, 115–134. Durham: Carolina Academic Press.Google Scholar
  41. Landelijk Informatie en Expertise Centrum (LIEC). 2015. Samen gebundeld. Impressies van een integrale aanpak van ondermijning. Den Haag: LIEC.Google Scholar
  42. ———. 2016. Brief aan de Minister van Veiligheid en Justitie. Voortgang integrale aanpak outlaw motorcycle gangs. Den Haag: LIEC.Google Scholar
  43. Lauchs, Mark, Andy Bain, and Peter Bell. 2015. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: A Theoretical Perspective. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lyng, Stephen, and Mitchell L. Bracey. 1995. Squaring the One Percent: Biker Style and the Selling of Cultural Resistance. In Cultural Criminology, ed. Jeff Ferrell and Clinton Sanders, 235–276. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  45. McBee, Randy. 2015. “Here’s Hoping the ‘hound’ and His Friends Had a Good Time”: The Hollister Gypsy Tour of 1947 and the Rise of the “Outlaw” Motorcyclist. International Journal of Motorcycle Studies. http://motorcyclestudies.org/volume-11-issue-1-spring-2015/heres-hoping-the-hound-and-his-friends-had-a-good-time-the-hollister-gypsy-tour-of-1947-and-the-rise-of-the-outlaw-motorcyclist/.html. Accessed 1 Aug 2017.
  46. Moerings, Martin, and Henk van de Bunt. 1976. Etiketten plakken. In Recht, macht en manipulatie, ed. Constantijn Kelk, Martin Moerings, Nico Jörg, and Paul Moedikdo, 155–188. Utrecht/Antwerpen: Het Spectrum.Google Scholar
  47. Municipality The Hague. 2011. Stadsdeelplan Laak 2012–2015. The Hague: Municipality The Hague.Google Scholar
  48. National Police. 2010. Hells Angels en andere 1%-MC’s in Nederland. Driebergen: Korps Landelijke Politiediensten (KLPD).Google Scholar
  49. ———. 2014. Outlawbikers in Nederland. Woerden: Dienst landelijke Informatieorganisatie.Google Scholar
  50. Plummer, Ken. 1979. Misunderstanding Labelling Perspectives. In Deviant Interpretations: Problems in Criminology, ed. David D. Downes and Paul Rock, 85–121. Oxford: Martin Robertson & Co.Google Scholar
  51. Roks, Robert A. 2007. ‘Het is hier toch geen Amerika?’ Reconstructie van de criminele carrière van een Nederlandse ‘gangsta’. Master thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  52. ———. 2016. In de h200d. Een eigentijdse etnografie over de inbedding van criminaliteit en identiteit. PhD dissertation, Department of Criminology, Erasmus University Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  53. Roks, Robert A., and Richard J.H.M. Staring. 2008. Crime, Rhyme en de Media: een eigentijdse levensgeschiedenis van een Haagse Gangsta. In Culturele Criminologie, ed. Dina Siegel, Frank van Gemert, and Frank Bovenkerk, 161–173. Den Haag: Boom Juridische Uitgevers.Google Scholar
  54. van Ruitenburg, Teun. 2016. Raising Barriers to ‘Outlaw Motorcycle Gang-related Events’. Underlining the Difference Between Pre-emption and Prevention. Erasmus Law Review 3: 122–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Shields, Danielle. 2012. The infamous ‘One percenter’: A Review of the Criminality, Subculture, and Structure of Modern Biker Gangs. Justice Policy Journal 9: 1–33.Google Scholar
  56. van Stapele, Saul. 1998, April. Crips. Nieuwe Revu: 43–47.Google Scholar
  57. ———. 2003. Crips.nl; 15 jaar gangcultuur in Nederland. Amsterdam: Vassallucci.Google Scholar
  58. The Hague Police Department. 2011. Jaarverslag & Jaarrekening 2011. The Hague: The Hague Police Department.Google Scholar
  59. Thompson, Hunter S. 1966. Hell’s Angels. A Strange and Terrible Sage. New York: Ballatine Books.Google Scholar
  60. Thrasher, Frederic M. 1927/1963. The Gang: 1.303 gangs in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  61. van der Valk, Joost. 2009. Strapped ’n Strong. Retrieved September 13, 2016. http://www.documentairenet.nl/review/crips-strapped-n-strong/.
  62. Van Hellemont, Elke. 2018. Legalization by Commodification: The (Ir)relevance of Fashion Styles and Brands in Street Gangster Performance. In Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs and Street Gangs: Scheming Legality, Resisting Criminalization, ed. Tereza Kuldova and Martin Sanchez-Jankowski. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  63. Viering, Peter. 1994, March. Straatroof, Inbraak, Doodslag. Panorama: 37–42.Google Scholar
  64. Yates, Brock. 2007. Birth of Terror. In The Mammoth Book of Bikers, ed. Arthur Veno, 57–72. Philadelphia: Running Press Book Publishers.Google Scholar

Media

  1. Hopper, Dennis. 1988. Colors. Movie. Directed by Dennis Hopper. Los Angeles. Orion Pictures.Google Scholar
  2. VARA. 2012. “Pauw en Witteman”, Broadcast of 30 January 2012.Google Scholar

House Minutes

  1. Kamerstukken II, 2011/12, 29 911, nr. 71.Google Scholar
  2. Kamerstukken II, 2011/12, 29911, no. 59.Google Scholar
  3. Kamerstukken II, 2013/14, 28 684, no. 409.Google Scholar

Court Rulings

  1. Court of Amsterdam, 11 April 2007, ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2007:BA2747Google Scholar
  2. ———, 16 December 2009, ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2009:BL0639Google Scholar
  3. Court of Leeuwarden, 6 March 2007, ECLI:NL:RBLEE:2007AZ9940.Google Scholar
  4. Court of Maastricht, 29 May 2007, ECLI:NL:RBMAA:2007:BA5843.Google Scholar
  5. Supreme Court, 27 March 2015, ECLI:NL:HR:2015:767Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert A. Roks
    • 1
  • Teun Van Ruitenburg
    • 1
  1. 1.Erasmus University of RotterdamRotterdamNetherlands

Personalised recommendations