Advertisement

Laser Applications in Children

  • Jessica CervantesEmail author
  • Sebastian H. Verne
  • Mercedes E. Gonzalez
Chapter

Abstract

Lasers can be used to treat a wide variety of dermatological disorders in children. This chapter outlines the conditions amenable to laser surgery in children (Table 1) and discusses the special issues surrounding parental counseling, heightened anxiety and safety precautions when performing laser surgery in children.

Keywords

Lasers Children Vascular lesions Port wine stains Infantile hemangioma Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTP) Pigmented lesions 

References

  1. 1.
    Stier MF, Glick SA, Hirsch RJ. Laser treatment of pediatric vascular lesions: port wine stains and hemangiomas. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58(2):261–85.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Railan D, Parlette EC, Uebelhoer NS, Rohrer TE. Laser treatment of vascular lesions. Clin Dermatol. 2006;24(1):8–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hammes S, Roos S, Raulin C, Ockenfels HM, Greve B. Does dye laser treatment with higher fluences in combination with cold air cooling improve the results of port-wine stains? J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21(9):1229–33.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cantatore JL, Kriegel DA. Laser surgery: an approach to the pediatric patient. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;50(2):165–84. quiz 185–8PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shirley MD, Tang H, Gallione CJ, et al. Sturge-Weber syndrome and port-wine stains caused by somatic mutation in GNAQ. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(21):1971–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    van der Horst CM, Koster PH, de Borgie CA, Bossuyt PM, van Gemert MJ. Effect of the timing of treatment of port-wine stains with the flash-lamp-pumped pulsed-dye laser. N Engl J Med. 1998;338(15):1028–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Morelli JG, Weston WL, Huff JC, Yohn JJ. Initial lesion size as a predictive factor in determining the response of port-wine stains in children treated with the pulsed dye laser. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149(10):1142–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chapas AM, Eickhorst K, Geronemus RG. Efficacy of early treatment of facial port wine stains in newborns: a review of 49 cases. Lasers Surg Med. 2007;39(7):563–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goldman MP, Fitzpatrick RE, Ruiz-Esparza J. Treatment of port-wine stains (capillary malformation) with the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser. J Pediatr. 1993;122(1):71–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ashinoff R, Geronemus RG. Flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser for port-wine stains in infancy: earlier versus later treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991;24(3):467–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nguyen CM, Yohn JJ, Huff C, Weston WL, Morelli JG. Facial port wine stains in childhood: prediction of the rate of improvement as a function of the age of the patient, size and location of the port wine stain and the number of treatments with the pulsed dye (585 nm) laser. Br J Dermatol. 1998;138(5):821–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Anolik R, Newlove T, Weiss ET, et al. Investigation into optimal treatment intervals of facial port-wine stains using the pulsed dye laser. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67(5):985–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Troilius A, Wrangsjo B, Ljunggren B. Patients with port-wine stains and their psychosocial reactions after photothermolytic treatment. Dermatol Surg. 2000;26(3):190–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alster TS, Railan D. Laser treatment of vascular birthmarks. J Craniofac Surg. 2006;17(4):720–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brownell CA, Zerwas S, Ramani GB. “So big”: the development of body self-awareness in toddlers. Child Dev. 2007;78(5):1426–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kreuger D. Body self. Development, psychopathologies, and psy-choanalytic significance. Psychoanal Study Child. 2001;56:238–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hansen K, Kreiter CD, Rosenbaum M, Whitaker DC, Arpey CJ. Long-term psychological impact and perceived efficacy of pulsed-dye laser therapy for patients with port-wine stains. Dermatol Surg. 2003;29(1):49–55.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brightman LA, Geronemus RG, Reddy KK. Laser treatment of port-wine stains. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2015;8:27–33.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Anderson RR, Parrish JA. Selective photothermolysis: precise microsurgery by selective absorption of pulsed radiation. Science. 1983;220(4596):524–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Liu G, Jia W, Nelson JS, Chen Z. In vivo, high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of port wine stain microvasculature in human skin. Lasers Surg Med. 2013;45(10):628–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gao L, Phan S, Nadora DM, et al. Topical rapamycin systematically suppresses the early stages of pulsed dye laser-induced angiogenesis pathways. Lasers Surg Med. 2014;46(9):679–88.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mahendran R, Sheehan-Dare RA. Survey of the practices of laser users in the UK in the treatment of port wine stains. J Dermatolog Treat. 2004;15(2):112–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Renfro L, Geronemus RG. Anatomical differences of port-wine stains in response to treatment with the pulsed dye laser. Arch Dermatol. 1993;129(2):182–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Geronemus R, Quintana A, WW WL. High-fluence modified pulsed dye laser photocoagulation with dynamic cooling of port-wine stains in infancy. Arch Dermatol. 2000;136(7):942–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kauvar ANB, Geronemus RG. Repetitive pulsed dye laser treatments improve persistent port-wine stains. Dermatol Surg. 1995;21(6):515–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhang B, Zhang TH, Huang Z, Li Q, Yuan KH, Hu ZQ. Comparison of pulsed dye laser (PDL) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treatment of facial port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks in pediatric patients. Photodiagn Photodyn Ther. 2014;11(4):491–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Huikeshoven M, Koster PH, de Borgie CA, Beek JF, van Gemert MJ, van der Horst CM. Redarkening of port-wine stains 10 years after pulsed-dye-laser treatment. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(12):1235–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Orten SS, Waner M, Flock S, Roberson PK, Kincannon J. Port-wine stains: an assessment of 5 years of treatment. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1996;122(11):1174–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cheng CE, Friedlander SF. Infantile hemangiomas, complications and treatments. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2016;35(3):108–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chinnadurai S, Sathe NA, Surawicz T. Laser treatment of infantile hemangioma: a systematic review. Lasers Surg Med. 2016;48(3):221–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Batta K, Goodyear HM, Moss C, Williams HC, Hiller L, Waters R. Randomised controlled study of early pulsed dye laser treatment of uncomplicated childhood haemangiomas: results of a 1-year analysis. Lancet. 2002;360(9332):521–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kessels JP, Hamers ET, Ostertag JU. Superficial hemangioma: pulsed dye laser versus wait-and-see. Dermatol Surg. 2013;39(3 Pt 1):414–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Reddy KK, Blei F, Brauer JA, et al. Retrospective study of the treatment of infantile hemangiomas using a combination of propranolol and pulsed dye laser. Dermatol Surg. 2013;39(6):923–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Park KH, Jang YH, Chung HY, Lee WJ, Kim DW, Lee SJ. Topical timolol maleate 0.5% for infantile hemangioma; it's effectiveness and/or adjunctive pulsed dye laser—single center experience of 102 cases in Korea. J Dermatolog Treat. 2015;26(4):389–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    David LR, Malek MM, Argenta LC. Efficacy of pulse dye laser therapy for the treatment of ulcerated haemangiomas: a review of 78 patients. Br J Plast Surg. 2003;56(4):317–27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    McCuaig CC, Cohen L, Powell J, et al. Therapy of ulcerated hemangiomas. J Cutan Med Surg. 2013;17(4):233–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Greenberger S, Bischoff J. Pathogenesis of infantile haemangioma. Br J Dermatol. 2013;169(1):12–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chang CJ, Kelly KM, Nelson JS. Cryogen spray cooling and pulsed dye laser treatment of cutaneous hemangiomas. Ann Plast Surg. 2001;46(6):577–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tawfik AA, Alsharnoubi J. Topical timolol solution versus laser in treatment of infantile hemangioma: a comparative study. Pediatr Dermatol. 2015;32(3):369–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Saafan AM, Salah MM. Using pulsed dual-wavelength 595 and 1064 nm is more effective in the management of hemangiomas. J Drugs Dermatol. 2010;9(4):310–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Alcantara Gonzalez J, Boixeda P, Truchuelo Diez MT, Lopez Gutierrez JC, Olasolo PJ. Ablative fractional yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser for scarring residual haemangiomas and scars secondary to their surgical treatment. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2012;26(4):477–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tan E, Vinciullo C. Pulsed dye laser treatment of spider telangiectasia. Australas J Dermatol. 1997;38(1):22–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hoffman SJ, Walsh P, Morelli JG. Treatment of angiofibroma with the pulsed tunable dye laser. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;29(5 Pt 1):790–1.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gonzalez S, Vibhagool C, Falo LD Jr, Momtaz KT, Grevelink J, Gonzalez E. Treatment of pyogenic granulomas with the 585 nm pulsed dye laser. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;35(3 Pt 1):428–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kopera D. Verrucae vulgares: flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser treatment in 134 patients. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42(11):905–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Binder B, Weger W, Komericki P, Kopera D. Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with a pulsed dye laser: pilot study with 19 children. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2008;6(2):121–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Silverberg NB. Warts and molluscum in children. Adv Dermatol. 2004;20:23–73.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kauvar AN, McDaniel DH, Geronemus RG. Pulsed dye laser treatment of warts. Arch Fam Med. 1995;4(12):1035–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Park HS, Kim JW, Jang SJ, Choi JC. Pulsed dye laser therapy for pediatric warts. Pediatr Dermatol. 2007;24(2):177–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Veitch D, Kravvas G, Al-Niaimi F. Pulsed dye laser therapy in the treatment of warts: a review of the literature. Dermatol Surg. 2017;43(4):485–93.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Park HS, Choi WS. Pulsed dye laser treatment for viral warts: a study of 120 patients. J Dermatol. 2008;35(8):491–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Griffith RD, Yazdani Abyaneh MA, Falto-Aizpurua L, Nouri K. Pulsed dye laser therapy for molluscum contagiosum: a systematic review. J Drugs Dermatol. 2014;13(11):1349–52.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Omi T, Kawana S. Recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum successfully treated with the pulsed dye laser. Laser Ther. 2013;22(1):51–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hughes PS. Treatment of molluscum contagiosum with the 585-nm pulsed dye laser. Dermatol Surg. 1998;24(2):229–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hammes S, Greve B, Raulin C. Molluscum contagiosum: treatment with pulsed dye laser. Hautarzt. 2001;52(1):38–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kawecki M, Bernad-Wisniewska T, Sakiel S, Nowak M, Andriessen A. Laser in the treatment of hypertrophic burn scars. Int Wound J. 2008;5(1):87–97.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Alster TS. Inflammatory linear verrucous epidermal nevus: successful treatment with the 585 nm flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;31(3 Pt 1):513–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Eisen D, Alster TS. Use of a 585 nm pulsed dye laser for the treatment of morphea. Dermatol Surg. 2002;28(7):615–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sliger BN, Burk CJ, Alvarez-Connelly E. Treatment of granuloma annulare with the 595 nm pulsed dye laser in a pediatric patient. Pediatr Dermatol. 2008;25(2):196–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Weingold DH, White PF, Burton CS. Treatment of lymphangioma circumscriptum with tunable dye laser. Cutis. 1990;45(5):365–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chowdhury MM, Harris S, Lanigan SW. Potassium titanyl phosphate laser treatment of resistant port-wine stains. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144(4):814–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Clark C, Cameron H, Moseley H, Ferguson J, Ibbotson SH. Treatment of superficial cutaneous vascular lesions: experience with the KTP 532 nm laser. Lasers Med Sci. 2004;19(1):1–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cole PD, Sonabend ML, Levy ML. Laser treatment of pediatric vascular lesions. Semin Plast Surg. 2007;21(3):159–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gooptu C, James MP. Recalcitrant viral warts: results of treatment with the KTP laser. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1999;24(2):60–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Anderson RR, Margolis RJ, Watenabe S, Flotte T, Hruza GJ, Dover JS. Selective photothermolysis of cutaneous pigmentation by Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulses at 1064, 532, and 355 nm. J Invest Dermatol. 1989;93(1):28–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dohil MA, Baugh WP, Eichenfield LF. Vascular and pigmented birthmarks. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2000;47(4):783–812. v–viCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Taylor CR, Anderson RR. Treatment of benign pigmented epidermal lesions by Q-switched ruby laser. Int J Dermatol. 1993;32(12):908–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kilmer SL, Wheeland RG, Goldberg DJ, Anderson RR. Treatment of epidermal pigmented lesions with the frequency-doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. A controlled, single-impact, dose-response, multicenter trial. Arch Dermatol. 1994;130(12):1515–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kato S, Takeyama J, Tanita Y, Ebina K. Ruby laser therapy for labial lentigines in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Eur J Pediatr. 1998;157(8):622–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kono T, Chan HH, Groff WF, et al. Long-pulse pulsed dye laser delivered with compression for treatment of facial lentigines. Dermatol Surg. 2007;33(8):945–50.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Guss L, Goldman MP, Wu DC. Picosecond 532 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser for the treatment of solar lentigines in darker skin types: safety and efficacy. Dermatol Surg. 2017;43(3):456–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tse Y, Levine VJ, McClain SA, Ashinoff R. The removal of cutaneous pigmented lesions with the Q-switched ruby laser and the Q-switched neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. A comparative study. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1994;20(12):795–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kim HR, Ha JM, Park MS, et al. A low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser for the treatment of cafe-au-lait macules. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;73(3):477–83.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Won KH, Lee YJ, Rhee do Y, Chang SE. Fractional 532-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser: one of the safest novel treatment modality to treat cafe-au-lait macules. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2016;18(5):268–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Johr RH, Schachner LS, Stolz W. Management of nevus spilus. Pediatr Dermatol. 1998;15(5):407–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Grevelink JM, Gonzalez S, Bonoan R, Vibhagool C, Gonzalez E. Treatment of nevus spilus with the Q-switched ruby laser. Dermatol Surg. 1997;23(5):365–9. discussion 369–70PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kagami S, Asahina A, Watanabe R, et al. Treatment of 153 Japanese patients with Q-switched alexandrite laser. Lasers Med Sci. 2007;22(3):159–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tang M, Cheng Y, Yang C, et al. Nevus spilus: treatment with fractional CO2 laser in combination with MedLite C6 laser: a preliminary study. Lasers Med Sci. 2017;32(7):1659–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Polder KD, Landau JM, Vergilis-Kalner IJ, Goldberg LH, Friedman PM, Bruce S. Laser eradication of pigmented lesions: a review. Dermatol Surg. 2011;37(5):572–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Alster TS, Williams CM. Treatment of nevus of Ota by the Q-switched alexandrite laser. Dermatol Surg. 1995;21(7):592–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Geronemus RG. Q-switched ruby laser therapy of nevus of Ota. Arch Dermatol. 1992;128(12):1618–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kono T, Chan HH, Ercocen AR, et al. Use of Q-switched ruby laser in the treatment of nevus of ota in different age groups. Lasers Surg Med. 2003;32(5):391–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Seo HM, Choi CW, Kim WS. Beneficial effects of early treatment of nevus of Ota with low-fluence 1,064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Dermatol Surg. 2015;41(1):142–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Wen X, Li Y, Jiang X. A randomized, split-face clinical trial of Q-switched alexandrite laser versus Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of bilateral nevus of Ota. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2016;18(1):12–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lu Z, Chen J, Wang X, Fang L, Jiao S, Huang W. Effect of Q-switched Alexandrite laser irradiation on epidermal melanocytes in treatment of Nevus of Ota. Chin Med J. 2003;116(4):597–601.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kouba DJ, Fincher EF, Moy RL. Nevus of Ota successfully treated by fractional photothermolysis using a fractionated 1440-nm Nd:YAG laser. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144(2):156–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Troilius AM. Effective treatment of traumatic tattoos with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Lasers Surg Med. 1998;22(2):103–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Knoell KA, Schreiber AJ, Kutenplon M, Milgraum SS. Q-switched ruby laser treatment of traumatic tattooing induced by pencil point puncture in children. Pediatr Dermatol. 1997;14(4):325–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Moreno-Arias GA, Casals-Andreu M, Camps-Fresneda A. Use of Q-switched alexandrite laser (755 nm, 100 nsec) for removal of traumatic tattoo of different origins. Lasers Surg Med. 1999;25(5):445–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Krengel S, Marghoob AA. Current management approaches for congenital melanocytic nevi. Dermatol Clin. 2012;30(3):377–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    De Raeve LE, Claes A, Ruiter DJ, van Muijen GN, Roseeuw D, van Kempen LC. Distinct phenotypic changes between the superficial and deep component of giant congenital melanocytic naevi: a rationale for curettage. Br J Dermatol. 2006;154(3):485–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ostertag JU, Quaedvlieg PJ, Kerckhoffs FE, et al. Congenital naevi treated with erbium:YAG laser (Derma K) resurfacing in neonates: clinical results and review of the literature. Br J Dermatol. 2006;154(5):889–95.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dragieva G, Hafner J, Kunzi W, et al. Malignant melanoma in a large congenital melanocytic nevus 9 years after dermabrasion in childhood. Dermatology. 2006;212(2):208–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Waldorf HA, Kauvar AN, Geronemus RG. Treatment of small and medium congenital nevi with the Q-switched ruby laser. Arch Dermatol. 1996;132(3):301–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    August PJ, Ferguson JE, Madan V. A study of the efficacy of carbon dioxide and pigment-specific lasers in the treatment of medium-sized congenital melanocytic naevi. Br J Dermatol. 2011;164(5):1037–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Schaffer JV. Update on melanocytic nevi in children. Clin Dermatol. 2015;33(3):368–86.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pearson IC, Harland CC. Epidermal naevi treated with pulsed erbium:YAG laser. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2004;29(5):494–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hohenleutner U, Landthaler M. Laser therapy of verrucous epidermal naevi. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1993;18(2):124–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Park JH, Hwang ES, Kim SN, Kye YC. Er:YAG laser treatment of verrucous epidermal nevi. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30(3):378–81.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Horner BM, El-Muttardi NS, Mayou BJ. Treatment of congenital melanocytic naevi with CO2 laser. Ann Plast Surg. 2005;55(3):276–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hruza GJ. Laser treatment of epidermal and dermal lesions. Dermatol Clin. 2002;20(1):147–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Serour F, Somekh E. Successful treatment of recalcitrant warts in pediatric patients with carbon dioxide laser. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2003;13(4):219–23.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Krakowski AC, Totri CR, Donelan MB, Shumaker PR. Scar Management in the Pediatric and Adolescent Populations. Pediatrics. 2016;137(2):e20142065.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kwon SD, Kye YC. Treatment of scars with a pulsed Er:YAG laser. J Cutan Laser Ther. 2000;2(1):27–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rincon E, Baker RL, Iglesias AJ, Duarte A-M. CNS toxicity after topical application of EMLA cream on a toddler with molluscum contagiosum. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2000;16(4):252–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Friedman PM, Fogelman JP, Nouri K, Levine VJ, Ashinoff R. Comparative study of the efficacy of four topical anesthetics. Dermatol Surg. 1999;25(12):950–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Chapas AM, Geronemus RG. Our approach to pediatric dermatologic laser surgery. Lasers Surg Med. 2005;37(4):255–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Spicer MS, Goldberg DJ, Janniger CK. Lasers in pediatric dermatology. Cutis. 1995;55(5):270–2. 278–80PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Calobrisi SD, Drolet BA, Esterly NB. Petechial eruption after the application of EMLA cream. Pediatrics. 1998;101(3 Pt 1):471–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Chen BK, Eichenfield LF. Pediatric anesthesia in dermatologic surgery: when hand-holding is not enough. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27(12):1010–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Keenan RL, Shapiro JH, Dawson K. Frequency of anesthetic cardiac arrests in infants: effect of pediatric anesthesiologists. J Clin Anesth. 1991;3(6):433–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Vespasiano M, Finkelstein M, Kurachek S. Propofol sedation: intensivists’ experience with 7304 cases in a children's hospital. Pediatrics. 2007;120(6):e1411–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Cohen MM, Cameron CB, Duncan PG. Pediatric anesthesia morbidity and mortality in the perioperative period. Anesth Analg. 1990;70(2):160-167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Eichenfield LF. Vascular lesion laser: practical techniques or some “light” suggestions. Pediatr Dermatol. 1999;16(4):332–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Burk CJ, Benjamin LT, Connelly EA. Distraction anesthesia for pediatric dermatology procedures. Pediatr Dermatol. 2007;24(4):419–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Yoo SS, Liggett J, Cohen BA. Use of parent-child tents in pediatric laser surgery. Dermatol Surg. 2003;29(4):399–401.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica Cervantes
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sebastian H. Verne
    • 1
  • Mercedes E. Gonzalez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations