Bits on Chips pp 167-187 | Cite as


  • Harry Veendrick


Advanced nanometre CMOS processes, with channel lengths below 100 nm, have emerged from the numerous manufacturing processes that have evolved since the introduction of the MOS transistor in integrated circuits during the 1970s. Often the process-related discussions are either focussed towards that part of the process in which the transistors are fabricated or towards the part in which the contacts and interconnections are fabricated. These parts are called front-end process and back-end process, respectively.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harry Veendrick
    • 1
  1. 1.HeezeThe Netherlands

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