Surface Modification of Advanced and Polymer Nanocomposites

  • Maliha Rahman
  • Farhan Zahin
  • Md Abid Shahriar Rahman Saadi
  • Ahmed Sharif
  • Md Enamul Hoque
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 14)


The continuous progression in the development of clay-polymer nanocomposites (CPN) is due to their ever growing utilization in several end use applications. Nanoclays are habitually in agglomerated micro particles due to the humidity of the surrounding air as it is strongly hydrophilic with high ability to absorb water from the atmosphere. The properties of clay-polymer nanocomposites critically depend on the distribution of clay particles in the polymer matrix and the adhesion between the two. The compatibility between the matrix and the reinforcement is mandatory to achieve desired properties. With this concern, this chapter discusses various techniques used for the modification of clay nanoparticles. Different modifiers like organic salts, inorganic acids, silane, supercritical-CO2 have been reported to modify clay surface and increase the inter layer spacing of clay which promotes hydrophobicity and intercalation of polymer chains into the galleries during nanocomposite preparation. In addition, modifiers also help disaggregation and exfoliation of nanoclays into polymer matrices which are the prerequisites of exploiting the beneficial reinforcement effect of nanoclay. These modifications have brought better mechanical properties and higher biodegradability to the clay-polymer nanocomposites. A brief outline on various types of polymers and clays used in nanocomposites and various application fields of clay-polymer nanocomposites are also illuminated in this chapter.


Polymer Clay Nanocomposite Compatibility Surfactant Organoclay 


  1. Adeosun S, Lawal G, Balogun S, Akpan E (2012) Review of green polymer nanocomposites. J Miner Mater Charact Eng 11(4):385–416Google Scholar
  2. Alther GR, Ferndale M (1983) Method of making organophilic clays. U.S. Patent 4,402,881 filed Nov 12, 1980 and issued Sept. 6, 1983Google Scholar
  3. Anadão P (2012) Polymer/clay nanocomposites: concepts, researches, applications and trends for the future. InTech, Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials, chap 1,
  4. Arao Y (2015) Flame retardancy of polymer nanocomposite. Springer International Publishing, Flame Retardants, pp 15–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Babu VR (2017) An overview of polymer/clay nanocomposites. ResearchGate, Chapter January 2017Google Scholar
  6. Bhattacharya M (2016) Polymer nanocomposites—a comparison between carbon nanotubes, graphene, and clay as nanofillers. Materials. 2016 9:262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Camargo PHC, Satyanarayana KG, Wypych F (2009) Nanocomposites: synthesis, structure, properties and new application opportunities. Mater Res 12:1–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carrado KA, Komadel P (2009) Acid activation of bentonites and polymer-clay nanocomposites. Elements 5:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen H, Thirumavalavan M, Lina F, Lee J (2015) A facile approach for achieving an effective dual sorption ability of Si/SH/S grafted sodium montmorillonite. RSC Adv 71:2015Google Scholar
  10. Chiu CW, Liao YL, Lin JJ (2012) Mg–Al layered double hydroxides intercalated with polyetheramidoacids and exhibiting a pH-responsive releasing property. Ind Eng Chem Res., 2012 51(1):581–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cogen JM, Lin TS, Morgan AB, Garcés JM (2013) Novel synthetic nanocomposite materials and their application in polyolefin-based wire and cable compounds. LOES Form Number 311-01101Google Scholar
  12. Dai JC, Huang JT (1999) Surface modification of clays and clay–rubber composite. Appl Clay Sci 15(1):51–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Galimberti M, Cipolletti VR, Coombs M (2013) Applications of clay–polymer nanocomposites. Handbook of clay science, 2nd ed, chap. 4.4Google Scholar
  14. Gao F (2004) Clay/polymer composites: the story. Mater Today 7:50–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ha SR, Ryu SH, Park SJ, Rhee KY (2007) Effect of clay surface modification and concentration on the tensile performance of clay/epoxy nanocomposites. Mater Sci Eng A 448(1):264–268. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ha SR, Rhee KY, Park SJ, Lee JH (2010) Temperature effects on the fracture behavior and tensile properties of silane-treated clay/epoxy nanocomposites. Compos B: Eng 41(8):602–607. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Indibay E (2016) Flame Retardants Additives for polymers. Published on January 2, 2016, LinkedinGoogle Scholar
  18. Kotal M, Bhowmick AK (2015) Polymer nanocomposites from modified clays: recent advances and challenges. Prog Polym Sci., 2015 51:127–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lewandowska K, Sionkowska A, Kaczmarek B, Furtos G (2014) Characterization of chitosan composites with various clays. Int J Biol Macromol 2014(65):534–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liao YL, Chiu CW, Lin JJ (2010) General intercalation of poly(oxyalkylene)−Amidoacids for anionic and cationic layered clays. Ind Eng Chem Res., 2010 49(10):5001–5005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lin JJ, Juang TY (2004) Intercalation of layered double hydroxides by poly(oxyalkylene)-amidocarboxylates: tailoring layered basal spacing. Polymer. 2004 45:7887–7893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lin JJ, Chu CC, Chiang ML, Tsai WC (2006) First isolation of individual silicate platelets from clay exfoliation and their unique self-assembly into fibrous arrays. J Phys Chem B 2006(110):18115–18120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lin JJ, Chan YN, Lan YN (2010) Hydrophobic modification of layered clays and compatibility for epoxy nanocomposites. Materials 2010(3):2588–2605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu HB, Xiao HN (2012) Investigation on intercalation modification of sodium-montmorillonite by cationic surfactant. J Inorg Mater 27(7):780–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mittal V (2011) Thermally stable and flame retardant polymer nanocomposites. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Morgan AB (2007) Polymer-clay nanocomposites: design and application of multi-functional materials. Mater Matters 2(1):20–25Google Scholar
  27. Nandita D, Shivendu R, Chidambaram R (2016a) In: Shampa S, Yashwant P (eds) Ch. 17: nanonutraceuticals: are they safe? nanotechnology in nutraceuticals: production to consumption. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 317Google Scholar
  28. Nandita D, Shivendu R, Arkadyuti RC, Chidambaram R, Rishi S, Ashutosh K (2016b) Nano agriculture and water quality management. In: Shivendu R, Nandita D, Eric L (eds) Sustainable agriculture reviews: nanoscience in food and agriculture 1. Springer-Nature, Heidelberg. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nguyen QT, Baird DG (2007) An improved technique for exfoliating and dispersing nanoclay particles into polymer matrices using supercritical carbon dioxide. Polymer 2007(48):6923–6933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Olad A (2011) Polymer/clay nanocomposites. Advances in diverse industrial applications of nanocomposites, chap. 7Google Scholar
  31. Panda AK, Mishra BG, Mishra DK, Singh RK (2010) Effect of sulphuric acid treatment on the physico-chemical characteristics of kaolin clay. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 363(1):98–104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Paul DR, Robeson LM (2008) Polymer nanotechnology: nanocomposites. Polymer 49:3187–3204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shivendu R, Nandita D, Chidambaram R (2016) Ch.7: nanoemulsions in food science and nutritions. In: Shampa S, Yashwant P (eds) Book: nanotechnology in nutraceuticals: production to consumption. CRC press, Boca Raton, p 135Google Scholar
  34. Shivendu R, Nandita D, Eric L (2017) Nanoscience in food and agriculture 4. Springer International Publishing Switzerland. ISBN: 978-3-319-53112-0.
  35. Shunmugasamy VC, Xiang C, Gupta N (2015) Clay/polymer nanocomposites: processing, properties, and applications. Hybrid and hierarchical composite materials, 1 January 2015, pp 161–200Google Scholar
  36. Singh A (2016) Clay nano-composites polymers. SlideShare, published on February 12, 2016Google Scholar
  37. Singla P, Mehta R, Upadhyay SN (2012) Clay modification by the use of organic cations. Green Sustain Chem 2012(2):21–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stloukal P, Pekarova S, Kalendova A, Mattausch H, Laske S, Holzer C, Chitu L, Bodner S, Maier G, Slouf M, Koutny M (2015) Kinetics and mechanism of the biodegradation of PLA/clay nanocomposites during thermophilic phase of composting process. Waste Manag 2015(42):31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Xi Y (2006) Synthesis, characterisation and application of organoclays. Doctoral thesis, Queensland University of Technology, Queensland, Australia. Retrieved from

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maliha Rahman
    • 1
  • Farhan Zahin
    • 1
  • Md Abid Shahriar Rahman Saadi
    • 1
  • Ahmed Sharif
    • 1
  • Md Enamul Hoque
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Materials and Metallurgical EngineeringBangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET)DhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringMilitary Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), Mirpur CantonmentDhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations