Training with and of Autonomous System – Modelling and Simulation Approach

  • Jan HodickyEmail author
  • Dalibor Prochazka
  • Josef Prochazka
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10756)


Having in place a new era of operationalization of systems with certain level of autonomy has implication in the whole spectrum of military activities. Training in the military domain as one of the key pillars of preparedness of Armed Forces must adequately reflect this phenomena. The article deals with all aspects of training related to Autonomous Systems (AS) and human being (HB). Firstly terminology of trainee and trainer in the AS and HB perspective is explained. Secondly factors that influence the effectiveness of the training when AS employed are elaborated. Special focus is put on the formalization of effectiveness of collective training with and of AS in the form of differential equation and model using the level of preparedness state variable. System dynamic is employed to design a model. The model is executed in the time in three different scenarios - Human in the Loop, Human on the Loop and Human out of the Loop; in all scenarios ASs with defined level of autonomy are employed. One of the finding is that collective training of AS with Human out of the Loop is less influenced by defined factors of effectiveness then in the case of collective training of AS with the Human in the Loop and Human on the Loop and requires less time to repeat collective training cycles to maintain the required level of preparedness.


Autonomous system Modelling and simulation Training Collective training effectiveness 



This work is sponsored by the Czech MoD project called STRATAL (2016–2020).


  1. 1.
    Vijay, K.: 50 years of robotics. IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag. 17(3), 8 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kot, T., Babjak, J., Novák, P.: Simulation system for teleoperated mobile robots. In: Hodicky, J. (ed.) MESAS 2015. LNCS, vol. 8906, pp. 164–172. Springer, Cham (2015). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kot, T., Babjak, J., Novák, P.: Virtual operator station for teleoperated mobile robots. In: Hodicky, J. (ed.) MESAS 2015. LNCS, vol. 9055, pp. 144–153. Springer, Cham (2015). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Raap, M., Zsifkovits, M., Pickl, S.: Trajectory optimization under kinematical constraints for moving target search. Comput. Oper. Res. 88, 324–331 (2017)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Stodola, P., Nohel, J., Mazal, J.: Model of optimal maneuver used in tactical decision support system. In: 2016 21st International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics, MMAR 2016, pp. 1240–1245 (2016). art. no. 7575316Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nahavandi, S.: Trusted autonomy between humans and robots: toward human-on-the-loop in robotics and autonomous systems. IEEE Syst. Man Cybern. Mag. 3(1), 10–17 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hodicky, J.: Autonomous systems operationalization gaps overcome by modelling and simulation. In: Hodicky, J. (ed.) MESAS 2016. LNCS, vol. 9991, pp. 40–47. Springer, Cham (2016). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hodicky, J., Procházka, D.: Challenges in the implementation of Autonomous Systems into the battlefield. In: Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Military Technologies (ICMT), pp. 700–704. University of Defence, Brno (2017). ISBN 978-1-5386-1988-9Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hodicky, J.: Standards to support military autonomous system life cycle. In: Březina, T., Jabłoński, R. (eds.) MECHATRONICS 2017. AISC, vol. 644, pp. 671–678. Springer, Cham (2018). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Farlík, J.: Conceptual operational architecture of the air force simulator: simulation of air defense operations. In: International Conference on Military Technology Proceeding, ICMT 2015, pp. 675–679. University of Defence, Brno (2015). ISBN 978-80-7231-976-3Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Farlík, J., Štefek, A., Časar, J.: Multi-agent system as operational center support. In: Proceedings of the 16 th International Conference on Mechatronics – Mechatronika 2014, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, pp. 458–462. Brno University of Technology, Brno (2014). ISBN 978-80-214-4817-9Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Çayirci, E., Marincic, D.: Computer Assisted Exercises and Training: A Reference Guide. Computer Assisted Exercises and Training: A Reference Guide, pp. 1–295 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Heinrichs, W.L., Youngblood, P., Harter, P.M., Dev, P.L.: Simulation for team training and assessment: case studies of online training with virtual worlds. World J. Surg. 32(2), 161–170 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for the Security and Military Strategic Studies at the University of DefenseBrnoCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations