Applications of the Cumulative Rate to Kidney Cancer Statistics in Australia

  • Janelle Brennan
  • K. C. Chan
  • Rebecca Kippen
  • C. T. Lenard
  • T. M. MillsEmail author
  • Ruth F. G. Williams
Part of the The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis book series (PSDE, volume 46)


Cancer incidence and mortality statistics in two populations are usually compared by using either the age-standardised rate or the cumulative risk by a certain age. We argue that the cumulative rate is a superior measure because it obviates the need for a standard population, and is not open to misinterpretation as is the case for cumulative risk. Then we illustrate the application of the cumulative rate by analysing incidence and mortality data for kidney cancer in Australia using the cumulative rate. Kidney cancer, which is also known as malignant neoplasm of kidney, is one of the less common cancers in Australia. In 2012, approximately 2.5% of all new cases of cancer were kidney cancer, and approximately 2.1% of all cancer related deaths in Australia were due to kidney cancer. There is variation in incidence and mortality by sex, age, and geographical location in Australia. We examine how the cumulative rate performs in measuring the variation of this disease across such sub-populations. This is part of our e ort to promote the use of the cumulative rate as an alternative to the age-standardised rates or cumulative risk. In addition we hope that this statistical investigation will contribute to the aetiology of the disease from an Australian perspective.


Kidney cancer Renal cell carcinoma Incidence Mortality Cumulative rate Descriptive epidemiology 



We thank the organisers of 4th SMTDA2016 Valletta, Malta, 1–4 June 2016, University of Malta for the opportunity to present our work. Bendigo Health is supported by the government of the state of Victoria in Australia.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janelle Brennan
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. C. Chan
    • 3
  • Rebecca Kippen
    • 4
  • C. T. Lenard
    • 5
  • T. M. Mills
    • 5
    Email author
  • Ruth F. G. Williams
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of UrologyBendigo HealthBendigoAustralia
  2. 2.St. Vincent’s Hospital MelbourneFitzroyAustralia
  3. 3.School of Management and EnterpriseUniversity of Southern QueenslandSpringfieldAustralia
  4. 4.School of Rural HealthMonash UniversityBendigoAustralia
  5. 5.Mathematics and StatisticsLa Trobe UniversityBendigoAustralia

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