Advertisement

How Newsrooms Use Eyewitness Media

  • Claire Wardle
Chapter
Part of the Global Transformations in Media and Communication Research - A Palgrave and IAMCR Series book series (GTMCR)

Abstract

Eyewitnesses capturing footage of news events has a long history. Over the past decade, the invention of the smartphone and the popularity of social networking sites, as a way of sharing videos and photos, has meant that many events, whether that is a protest, the aftermath of a terrorist incident, a weather event, or a human rights abuse will be captured by at least one (often multiple) camera, mostly held by untrained eyewitnesses who happen to be there. This chapter draws on empirical research into the impact of eyewitness media on newsrooms, human rights organizations, and audiences. It explores the barriers that exist around integrating this type of content into newsroom output or as evidence in a human rights case, and it surveys the legal and ethical challenges raised by eyewitness media as well as the impact of graphic imagery on the staff who monitor this content.

References

  1. Amnesty International. (2014). Citizen Evidence Lab. http://citizenevidence.org/.
  2. Ax, J. (2013, November 22). Photographer Wins $1.2 Million from Companies That Took Pictures +off Twitter, Reuters. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/us-media-copyright-twitter-idUSBRE9AL16F20131122.
  3. Blair, Madeleine. (2015, October). Announcing WITNESS’ Ethical Guidelines for Using Eyewitness Footage in Human Rights. Retrieved from WITNESS. https://blog.witness.org/2015/10/announcing-witness-ethical-guidelines-for-using-eyewitness-footage-in-human-rights/.
  4. Brown, P. (2015a, May 12). A Global Study of Eyewitness Media in Online Newspaper Sites. Retrieved from Eyewitness Media Hub. http://eyewitnessmediahub.com/research/user-generated-content.
  5. Brown, P. (2015b, July). ‘It’s Genuine, as Opposed to Manufactured’: A Study of UK News Audiences’ Attitudes Towards Eyewitness Media. Retrieved from Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. http://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/publication/%E2%80%98it%E2%80%99s-genuine-opposed-manufactured%E2%80%99.
  6. Browne, M. (2012, April 24). Inside Storyful’s Verification Process, Storyful Blog. http://blog.storyful.com/2012/04/24/inside-storyful-storyfuls-verification-process/.
  7. Dart Center. (2014, August 12). Working with Traumatic Imagery. Retrieved from the Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma. https://dartcenter.org/content/working-with-traumatic-imagery.
  8. Dubberley, S. (2015a, December 8). Making Secondary Trauma a Primary Issue: A Study of Eyewitness Media and Vicarious Trauma on the Frontline. Retrieved from Eyewitness Media Hub. http://eyewitnessmediahub.com/research/vicarious-trauma.
  9. Dubberley, S. (2015b, December 10). Viewing Shocking Eyewitness Media is ‘as Traumatic as Frontline Reporting’’. Retrieved from BBC Academy. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/collegeofjournalism/entries/75e1983a-76eb-4287-92dd-dfa219f99f1d.
  10. Feinstein, A., Audet, B., & Waknine, E. (2014, July 8). Witnessing Images of Extreme Violence: A Psychological Study of Journalists in the Newsroom. JRSM Open, 5(8), 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Wardle, C. (2014). Cleaning up the Wild West. Retried from Eyewitness Media Hub on Medium. https://medium.com/@emhub/cleaning-up-the-wild-west-818c0ed6cc61.
  12. Wardle, C., Dubberley, S., & Brown, P. (2014, June 30). Amateur Footage: A Global Study of User Generated Content in TV and Online News Output, The Tow Center for Digital Journalism, Columbia Graduate School of Journalism.Google Scholar
  13. WITNESS Human Rights Channel. (2012). https://www.youtube.com/user/humanrights.
  14. Zelizer, B. (2010). About to Die: How News Images Move the Public. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claire Wardle
    • 1
  1. 1.Harvard Kennedy SchoolCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations