Advertisement

Do Financial, Human, Social and Cultural Capital Matter?

  • Leyla Sarfaraz
  • Sarfraz A. Mian
  • Emine Esra Karadeniz
  • Mohammad Reza Zali
  • Muhammad Shahid Qureshi
Chapter
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)

Abstract

Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey are the founding members of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), established in 1985, to promote economic, technical, and cultural cooperation among the member states. The three countries share borders and have marked similarities in numerous cultural, religious, and traditional values. With a combined population of over 320 million and economies ranging from factor-driven to efficiency-driven, countries of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, comprise more than half of the MENA region population. This project envisages a comparative study of women entrepreneurship in Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey using qualitative as well as quantitative approaches. Women entrepreneurship in these countries are studied from both domestic and international perspectives.

Keywords

ECO Entrepreneurship Women entrepreneurship Factor-driven Efficiency-driven MENA 

References

  1. Arenius P, Kovalainen A (2006) Similarities and differences across the factors associated with women’s self-employment preference in the Nordic countries. Int Small Bus J 24(1):31–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bennett RJ, Robson PJ (1999) The use of external business advice by SMEs in Britain. Enterp Reg Dev 11:155–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boden RJ, Nucci AR (2000) On the survival prospects of men’s and women’s new business ventures. J Bus Ventur 15(4):347–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bourdieu P (1986) The forms of capital. In: Richardson J (ed) The handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education. Greenwood Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Brush C, Carter N, Greene P, Gatewood E and Hart M (2001) An investigation of women-led firms and venture capital investment. Report prepared for the U.S. SBA Office of Advocacy and the National Women’s Business CouncilGoogle Scholar
  6. Brush C, Carter N, Gatewood E, Greene P, Hart M (2004) Clearing the hurdles: women building high growth businesses. Financial Times Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  7. Carter S, Shaw E (2006) Women’s business ownership: recent research and policy developments. DTI Small Business Service Research Report, Nov 2006, London, pp 1–96Google Scholar
  8. Castrogiovanni G (1996) Pre-startup planning and the survival of new small businesses: theoretical linkages. J Manag 22:801–822Google Scholar
  9. Cetindamar Ç, Gupta VK, Karadeniz EE, Egrican N (2012) What the numbers tell: the impact of human, family and financial capital on women and men’s entry into entrepreneurship in Turkey. Entrep Reg Dev 24(1–2):29–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen CC, Greene P, Crick A (1998) Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? J Bus Ventur 13(4):295–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chowdhury S, Endres ML (2005) Gender difference and the formation of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Entrep Diverse World 8:2005Google Scholar
  12. Davidsson P, Honig B (2003) The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. J Bus Ventur 18:301–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deakins D, Graham L, Sullivan R, Whittam G (1998) New venture support: an analysis of mentoring support for new and early stage entrepreneurs. J Small Bus Enterp Dev 5(2):151–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Delmar F, Davidson P (2000) Where do they come from? Prevalence and characteristics of nascent entrepreneurs. Entrep Reg Dev 12:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dyer LM, Ross CA (2007) Advising the small business client. Int Small Bus J 25:130–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Etzioni A (1987) Entrepreneurship, adaptation and legitimation: a macro-behavioral perspective. J Econ Behav Organ 8(2):175–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Firkin P (2003) Entrepreneurial capital. In: De Bruin A, Dupuis A (eds) Entrepreneurship: new perspectives in a global age. Ashgate, Aldershot, pp 57–75Google Scholar
  18. Fischer EM, Reuber AR, Dyke LS (1993) A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex, gender, and entrepreneurship. J Bus Ventur 8(2):151–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gartner WB, Starr JA, Bhat S (1999) Predicting new venture survival: an analysis of anatomy of a start-up case from Inc. Magazine. J Bus Ventur 14(2):215–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. González N, Solís V (2011) Discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities: a gender perspective. Ind Manag Data Syst 111(5):755–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Greve A, Salaff J (2003) Social networks and entrepreneurship. Entrep Theory Pract 28(1):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hansen EL (1995) Entrepreneurial network and new organization growth. Entrep Theory Pract 19(4):7–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hofstede G (2011) Dimensionalizing cultures: the hofstede model in context. Read Psychol Cult 2(1).  https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1014
  24. Ibarra H (1997) Paving an alternative route: gender differences in managerial networks. Soc Psychol Q 60(1):91–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Inglehart R, Welzel C (2015) The world values survey. Available at: http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/wvs.jsp
  26. Loscocco KA, Robinson J (1991) Barriers to women’s small-business success in the United States. Gend Soc 5:511–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marlow S, Patto D (2005) All credit to men? Entrepreneurship, finance, and gender. Entrep Theory Pract 29(6):717–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nohria N (1992) Is a network perspective a useful way of studying organisations? In: Nohria N, Eccles R (eds) Networks and organisations: structure, form and action. Harvard Business School Press, Harvard, MAGoogle Scholar
  29. Reynolds P, White SB (1997) The entrepreneurial process: economic growth, men, women, and minorities. Quorum Books, Westport, CTGoogle Scholar
  30. Robinson S, Stubberud HA (2009) Gender differences in successful business owners’ network structures: a European study. Proc Acad Stud Int Bus 9(1):29–34Google Scholar
  31. Roomi MA, Parrott G (2008) Barriers to development and progression of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Int J Entrep 17(1):59–72Google Scholar
  32. Shane S (2000) Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organ Sci 11(4):448–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shaw E, Carter S, Lam W, Wilson F (2005) Social capital and accessing finance: the relevance of networks. In: Paper presented at institute for small business & entrepreneurship (ISBE) 28th national conference, 1–3 Nov 2005, Blackpool, UKGoogle Scholar
  34. Thurik R, Dejardin M (2012) Entrepreneurship and culture. In: van Gelderen M, Masurel E (eds) Entrepreneurship in context, Routledge studies in entrepreneurship. Routledge, London, pp 175–186Google Scholar
  35. Ucbasaran D, Westhead P (2008) Opportunity identification and pursuit: does an entrepreneur’s human capital matter? Small Bus Econ 30:153–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhao X, Li H, Rauch A (2012) Cross-country differences in entrepreneurial activity: the role of cultural practice and national wealth. Front Bus Res China 6(4):447–474Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leyla Sarfaraz
    • 1
  • Sarfraz A. Mian
    • 2
  • Emine Esra Karadeniz
    • 3
  • Mohammad Reza Zali
    • 4
  • Muhammad Shahid Qureshi
    • 5
  1. 1.Shiraz University, GEM IranShirazIran
  2. 2.State University of New York at Oswego, GEM PakistanOswegoUSA
  3. 3.Yeditepe University, GEM IstanbulIstanbulTurkey
  4. 4.The University of Tehran, GEM TehranTehranIran
  5. 5.Center for Entrepreneurial Development, IBA, GEM PakistanKarachiPakistan

Personalised recommendations