Do Financial, Human, Social and Cultural Capital Matter?

  • Leyla Sarfaraz
  • Sarfraz A. Mian
  • Emine Esra Karadeniz
  • Mohammad Reza Zali
  • Muhammad Shahid Qureshi
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)


Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey are the founding members of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), established in 1985, to promote economic, technical, and cultural cooperation among the member states. The three countries share borders and have marked similarities in numerous cultural, religious, and traditional values. With a combined population of over 320 million and economies ranging from factor-driven to efficiency-driven, countries of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, comprise more than half of the MENA region population. This project envisages a comparative study of women entrepreneurship in Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey using qualitative as well as quantitative approaches. Women entrepreneurship in these countries are studied from both domestic and international perspectives.


ECO Entrepreneurship Women entrepreneurship Factor-driven Efficiency-driven MENA 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leyla Sarfaraz
    • 1
  • Sarfraz A. Mian
    • 2
  • Emine Esra Karadeniz
    • 3
  • Mohammad Reza Zali
    • 4
  • Muhammad Shahid Qureshi
    • 5
  1. 1.Shiraz University, GEM IranShirazIran
  2. 2.State University of New York at Oswego, GEM PakistanOswegoUSA
  3. 3.Yeditepe University, GEM IstanbulIstanbulTurkey
  4. 4.The University of Tehran, GEM TehranTehranIran
  5. 5.Center for Entrepreneurial Development, IBA, GEM PakistanKarachiPakistan

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