The Impact of Age and Entrepreneurial Age-Based Self-Image on Entrepreneurial Competencies of Male and Female: Evidence of GEM-Iran 2016 Data

  • Mohammad Reza Zali
  • Nezameddin Faghih
  • Parvaneh GelardEmail author
  • Roya Molaei
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)


Entrepreneurship is not an easy field to act. Therefore, entrepreneurs have entrepreneurial competencies (such as entrepreneurial self-efficacy, perceived entrepreneurial opportunity, no fear of failure and role model) distinguishing them from other people. Of course, the more they get older, the less competencies they have.

The aim of this paper is to study the impact of age and entrepreneurial age-based self-image on entrepreneurial competencies of males and females based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2016 data. The total number of respondents were 3259 (52% males) and (48% females), mainly in the age range of 25–34 and 18–24 respectively. In addition, a majority of respondents had post-secondary education.

The study results show that females’ age has more impact on their entrepreneurial competencies (0.071) than that of males (0.050). Females’ entrepreneurial age-based self-image has more effect on their entrepreneurial competencies (0.171) than those of males (0.127) as well. Moreover, the research findings indicate that entrepreneurial age-based self-image has a moderating effect on the relationship between age and entrepreneurial competencies of men and women. Furthermore, this study suggests that people who perceive they have entrepreneurial competencies, should reinforce their entrepreneurial age-based self-image.


Age Entrepreneurial age-based self-image Entrepreneurial competencies Male and female 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Reza Zali
    • 1
  • Nezameddin Faghih
    • 2
  • Parvaneh Gelard
    • 3
    Email author
  • Roya Molaei
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of EntrepreneurshipUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.UNESCO Chair in EntrepreneurshipParisFrance
  3. 3.Faculty of ManagementIslamic Azad University, South Tehran BranchTehranIran

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