Root Biology pp 85-142 | Cite as

Morphological and Symbiotic Root Modifications for Mineral Acquisition from Nutrient-Poor Soils

  • A. KleinertEmail author
  • V. A. Benedito
  • R. J. L. Morcillo
  • J. Dames
  • P. Cornejo-Rivas
  • A. Zuniga-Feest
  • Mabel Delgado
  • Gastón Muñoz
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 52)


Plants have the ability to form vast root systems with lengths measuring up to several kilometers and branch roots numbering in millions. These expansive root systems provide plants with a large surface area for water and nutrient uptake from the surrounding soil. Roots also have further equally important functions to fulfil such as vegetative reproduction, hormone biosynthesis, photoassimilate storage, and the establishment of symbiotic relationships with microorganisms. Root systems have evolved several adaptations to aid them in maximizing nutrient uptake. These adaptations can be morphological such as changes in the root architecture or formation of cluster roots or may be symbiotic associations with mycorrhizae or nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Improvement of nutrient acquisition and use by plants is imperative for economic, humanitarian, and environmental reasons, and a better understanding of the processes governing root adaptations would enable us to adapt fertilizer and pesticide programs. In this chapter, we will focus on both morphological (cluster roots) and symbiotic root adaptations (associations with ectomycorrhizae, arbuscular mycorrhizae, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria) to soil nutrient deficiencies.


Root architecture remodeling Cluster roots Symbiosis Root development Mycorrhiza Rhizosphere 



The authors would like to acknowledge the various research agencies, whose funding supported much of the work, upon which this chapter is based. P Cornejo, A Zuniga-Feest and M Delgado were funded by the following grants—Fondecyt grant postdctoral Nº 3150187 (MD), Fondecyt iniciation grant Nº 11170368 (MD), Fondecyt Nº 1130440 (AZF) and FONDECYT grant Nº 1170264 (PC) (CONICYT-Chile). Research at V Benedito’s laboratory is funded by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (Hatch Project WVA00686). A Kleinert is funded by the National Research Foundation of South Africa. The authors would like to thank Alexander Valentine for Figs. 4.34.5.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Kleinert
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. A. Benedito
    • 2
  • R. J. L. Morcillo
    • 3
  • J. Dames
    • 4
  • P. Cornejo-Rivas
    • 5
    • 6
  • A. Zuniga-Feest
    • 7
    • 8
  • Mabel Delgado
    • 7
    • 8
  • Gastón Muñoz
    • 7
    • 9
  1. 1.Botany and Zoology DepartmentUniversity of StellenboschMatielandSouth Africa
  2. 2.Division of Plant & Soil SciencesWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA
  3. 3.Shanghai Center for Plant Stress BiologyShanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of SciencesShanghaiChina
  4. 4.Department of Biochemistry and MicrobiologyRhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa
  5. 5.Departamento de Ciencias Químicas y Recursos NaturalesUniversidad de La FronteraTemucoChile
  6. 6.Centro de Investigación en Micorrizas y Sustentabilidad Agroambiental (CIMYSA)Universidad de La FronteraTemucoChile
  7. 7.Laboratorio de Biología vegetal, Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Austral de ChileValdiviaChile
  8. 8.Centro de investigaciones en Suelos volcánicos (CISVo)Universidad Austral de ChileValdiviaChile
  9. 9.Facultad de CienciaUniversidad San Sebastián, Sede ValdiviaValdiviaChile

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