Advertisement

Rethinking the Taxi: Case Study of Hamburg on the Prospects of Urban Fleets for Enhancing Sustainable Mobility

  • Susanne Schatzinger
  • Chyi Yng Rose Lim
  • Steffen Braun
Conference paper
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

Despite being a vital part of the urban mobility system, the taxi receives little attention from planners and policy makers; thus, its potential contributions to enhance sustainable mobility are often overlooked. Consequently, this paper adopts an innovative perspective to rethink the taxi for enhancing sustainable urban mobility. It takes a closer look at the prospects of urban taxi fleets for supporting the transition of a city’s mobility system towards sustainability. The work is attributed to the project “Future Urban Taxi” under the initiative “Ambient Mobility Lab” supported with funding from the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Labor and Housing of the federal state Baden-Württemberg in Germany. To relate to a specific urban context, ten German cities were previously analyzed and Hamburg chosen as a use case. The city provides good availability of both taxi and mobility data, and the municipality is comparatively open to innovative concepts (e.g., the voluntary introduction of the fiscal taximeter, allowing more flexible pricing). By analyzing the use case Hamburg, “Future Urban Taxi” focuses on two main challenges: (i) how the taxi as a vehicle has to adapt to user demand and specific urban contexts, and (ii) how the taxi as a system can be integrated into the mobility system of a city in a more effective and sustainable way. A qualitative methodology consisting of the collection and qualitative assessment of expert interviews, as well as a scenario and gap analysis, was used to assess the potential of various taxi concepts. Three future scenarios for the year 2025 were built around them to arrive at three taxi concepts—the electric taxi, autonomous taxi and shared taxis. Each of these can contribute to the sustainability of Hamburg’s urban mobility system in varying degrees. The highest contribution lies in the implementation of shared-taxi services. They are rather easy to implement and can achieve quick benefits both for the customers and taxi operators. The electrification of taxis is rated second, since it requires investments in infrastructure and new forms of operations of the vehicles. The autonomous-taxi concept is least likely to be implemented soon, even though it could offer quite a few benefits. The reason is that there are still a lot of uncertainties (technical, spatial, legal) regarding this technology. By highlighting the need to rethink the taxi, this paper offers an insightful understanding of this mobility service in the specific urban system of the case study city of Hamburg.

Keywords

Taxi Mobility-on-demand service Service innovation perspective Service design Sustainable mobility 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The “Future Urban Taxi” is a sub-project under the joint initiative “Ambient Mobility Lab” between the Fraunhofer IAO in Germany and the MIT in the U.S., supported with funding from Ministry of Economic Affairs, Labor and Housing of the German federal state Baden-Württemberg. For more information, please see ambientmobility.org.

References

  1. Aarhaug, J. (2016). Taxis as a part of public transport. Sustainable urban transport technical document #16. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). http://www.sutp.org/files/contents/documents/resources/B_Technical-Documents/GIZ_SUTP_TD16_Taxi_EN.pdf. Accessed 10 January 2017.
  2. Aarhaug, J., & Skollerud, K. (2014). Taxi: Different solutions in different segments. Transportation Research Procedia, 1, 276–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banister, D. (2008). The sustainable mobility paradigm. Transport Policy, 15, 73–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beirao, G., & Sarsfield Cabral, J. A. (2007). Understanding attitudes towards public transport and private car: A qualitative study. Transport Policy, 14(2007), 478–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borroni-Bird, C. E. (2012). Personal urban mobility for the 21st century. In: O. Inderwildi & D. King (Eds.), Transport and the environment (313–334).Google Scholar
  6. Brauers, J., & Weber, M. (2006). A new method of scenario analysis for strategic planning. Journal of Forecasting, 7(1), 31–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. BSU. (2011). The Hamburg climate action plan 2007–2012: A brochure on the update 2011. Hamburg: Behörde für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt (BSU). http://www.hamburg.de/contentblob/4028914/data/booklet-englisch).pdf. Accessed 21 January 2017.
  8. BSU. (2012). Hamburg—European green capital 2011: Final report. Hamburg: BSU. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/europeangreencapital/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Doku-Umwelthauptstadt-engl-web.pdf. Accessed 21 January 2017.
  9. BSU/SK. (2011). Communication of the senate to the Hamburg parliament: Update of the Hamburg climate action plan 2007–2012. Hamburg: Behörde für Stadtentwicklung und Umwelt (BSU)/Senatskanzlei (SK). http://www.co2olbricks.eu/fileadmin/Redaktion/Press/Documents/Hamburg_Climate_Action_Plan_2007-2012_Update_2011_2012.pdf. Accessed 21 January 2017.
  10. BSU/SK. (2013). Status quo report Hamburg. Hamburg: BSU/SK. http://urbantransform.eu/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2015/07/Status-Quo-Report_Hamburg.pdf. Accessed 21 January 2017.
  11. BSU/SK. (2015). City transformation agenda Hamburg. Hamburg: BSU/SK. http://urbantransform.eu/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2015/07/D2.2_Transformation-Agenda-Hamburg.pdf. Accessed 21 January 2017.
  12. BUE. (2016). Hamburg—European green capital: 5 Years on—The city takes it further. Hamburg: Behörde für Umwelt und Energie (BUE). http://ec.europa.eu/environment/europeangreencapital/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Hamburg-EGC-5-Years-On_web.pdf. Accessed 21 January 2017.
  13. BWVI. (2013). Mobilitätsprogramm 2013: Grundlage für eine kontinuierliche Verkehrsentwicklungsplanung in Hamburg. Hamburg: Behörde für Wirtschaft, Verkehr und Innovation (BWVI). http://www.hamburg.de/contentblob/4119700/data/mobilitaetsprogramm-2013.pdf. Accessed 21 January 2017.
  14. Fink, A. (2001). Nicht voraussagen, sondern vorausdenken. Mit “Szenario-Management“ in ungewissen Umfeldern navigieren. Marketing Journal, 4, 176–179.Google Scholar
  15. Frantzeskaki, N., Bach, M., Hölscher, K., & Avelino, F. (2015). Urban transition management: A reader on the theory and application of transition management in cities. SUSTAIN Project (www.sustainedu.com). Rotterdam, DRIFT, Erasmus University Rotterdam (Creative Commons).
  16. Goldman, T., & Gorham, R. (2006). Sustainable urban transport: Four innovative directions. Technology in Society, 28, 261–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hamburg.de. (2016, April 26). HVV kooperiert mit moovel. http://www.hamburg.de/hvv/6054554/hvv-moovel. Accessed 10 January 2017.
  18. Lim, C. Y. R., & Schatzinger, S. (2016). Urban data report 2015. Stuttgart: Fraunhofer IAO. Boston: MIT.Google Scholar
  19. Linne, K., & Krause, T. (2007). 2 Zwischenbericht: Gutachten über die wirtschaftliche Lage des Hamburger Taxigewerbes. Hamburg: Linne + Krause Marketing-Forschung GbR. http://www.hamburg.de/contentblob/2987770/56fdf28726f0d7e409a07ab5323cfc24/data/taxi-zwischenbericht02-download.pdf. Accessed 15 February 2017.
  20. Margherita, A., Elia, G., Secundo, G., & Passiante, G. (2012). Sustainable mobility: An integrative framework and its application for new service design. International Journal of Technology Management & Sustainable Development, 11(1), 31–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Murchland, J. D. (1970). Braess’s paradox of traffic flow. Transportation Research, 4, 391–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Muskat, M., Blackman, D., & Muskat, B. (2012). Mixed methods: Combining expert interviews, cross-impact analysis and scenario development. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 10(1), 9–21.Google Scholar
  23. OECD. (2015). Taxi services: Competition and regulation. In competition policy roundtables publication series, DAF/COMP(2007)42. http://www.oecd.org/regreform/sectors/41472612.pdf. Accessed 08 January 2017.
  24. Schatzinger, S., & Lim, C. Y. R. (2017). Taxi of the future: Big data analysis as a framework for future urban fleets in smart cities. In: A. Bisello, D. Vettorato, R. Stephens & P. Elisei (Eds.), Smart and sustainable planning for cities and regions: Results of SSPCR 2015. Book series: Green energy and technology (pp. 83–98). Switzerland: Publisher: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  25. Schlesiger, C., & Kroker, M. (2014). Die Abgründe des Taxi-Gewerbes. http://www.wiwo.de/unternehmen/dienstleister/unwuerdiges-geschacher-die-abgruende-des-taxi-gewerbes/10724474.html. Accessed 04 February 2016.
  26. Schmidt, H. (2017, January 5). Ridesharing—Neu in Hamburg: Gemeinsam mit fremden Menschen Taxi fahren. Hamburger Abendblatt. http://www.abendblatt.de/hamburg/article209175465/Neu-in-Hamburg-Gemeinsam-mit-fremden-Menschen-Taxi-fahren.html. Accessed 10 January 2017.
  27. SK. (2013). Notice from the Senate to the Hamburg parliament: Master plan for climate protection. Hamburg: Senatskanzlei (SK). http://www.hamburg.de/contentblob/4316146/data/master-plan-for-climate-protection.pdf. Accessed 21 January 2017.
  28. Svítek, M. (2015). Urban transport—a big challenge. International Transportation, 67(1), 3.Google Scholar
  29. Taxi-Heute. (2009). Warum das Hamburger Modell bisher nur in der Hansestadt funktioniert. http://www.taxi-heute.de/Das-bundesweite-Taxi-Magazin/5402/Artikel/Warum-das-Hamburger-Modell-bisher-nur-in-der-Hansestadt-funktioniert. Accessed 04 February 2016.
  30. Taxi-Heute. (2015). In Hamburg sinken die Taxizahlen weiter. http://www.taxi-heute.de/Taxi-News/News/11847/In-Hamburg-sinken-die-Taxizahlen-weiter. Accessed 21 January 2017.
  31. Taxi Times. (2014). Schlussbilanz der Hamburger Fiskaltaxameter-Förderung. http://www.taxi-times.com/schlussbilanz-der-hamburger-fiskaltaxameter-foerderung. Accessed 09 January 2017.
  32. WBCSD. (2016). Sustainable urban mobility report Hamburg. Geneva: World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). http://www.wbcsd.org/Projects/Sustainable-Mobility-Project-2.0/Resources/Sustainable-Urban-Mobility-Report-Hamburg. Accessed 08 January 2017.
  33. Wefering, F., Rupprecht, S., Bührmann, S., & Böhler-Baedeker, S. (2014). Guidelines: Developing and implementing a sustainable urban mobility plan. Brussels: European Commission. http://www.eltis.org/sites/eltis/files/guidelines-developing-and-implementing-a-sump_final_web_jan2014b.pdf. Accessed 08 January 2017.
  34. Weimer-Jehle, W. (2014). Introduction to qualitative systems and scenario analysis using cross-impact balance analysis. Stuttgart: Interdisciplinary Research Unit on Risk Governance and Sustainable Technology Development—University of Stuttgart (ZIRN). http://www.cross-impact.de/Ressourcen/Guideline_No_1.pdf. Accessed 05 January 2017.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanne Schatzinger
    • 1
  • Chyi Yng Rose Lim
    • 1
  • Steffen Braun
    • 2
  1. 1.Fraunhofer-Institute for Industrial Engineering IAO—Competence Team Smart Urban EnvironmentsStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Fraunhofer-Institute for Industrial Engineering IAO—Business Unit Mobility and Urban Systems EngineeringStuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations