Lifestyle Modification in Long-Term Management of Chronic Diseases
Nowadays, unfortunately, obesity has been viewed as a cosmetic issue rather than a chronic disease; furthermore, health insurance systems do not include the costs of obesity treatment except if it is associated with a chronic disease such as hypertension and diabetes . Obesity could be defined as an excess amount of energy intake and fat storage through overnutrition and adopting sedentary lifestyle [2, 3]. It can be caused by a combination of several factors including cultural and environmental factors, such as elevated energy diet, low levels of physical activity, eating disorders, and increased portion size. These factors can cause a fundamental change in the structure of adipose tissue leading to “hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes, inflammation” as well as it causes a change in the secretion of adipokines, which is a biologically active protein that can cause severe impact on the metabolism of glucose and lipids [3, 4]. A study found in UAE indicated that factors that may attribute to low levels of activities are mainly due to the hot climate that can reach up to 45° C in the summer, in addition to the cultural norms that can restrict female outdoor physical activities .
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