Healthy Dietary Pattern for the Primary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

  • Reema F. Tayyem


In colorectal cancer (CRC) disease, several well-known dietary and non-dietary risk factors have been involved in its development. Some of those factors are high consumption of red meat and processed meat; low fiber intake; alcohol drinking; obesity; and a sedentary lifestyle [1]. Additionally, genetic susceptibility [2], tobacco smoking [3], and exposure to environmental carcinogens were found to promote proliferation and malignant transformation of CRC cells [4]. Several studies have focused on the effects of a single food item or a nutrient on lowering risk of CRC incidence [5]. However, the association of a single food item or food group with the risk of developing CRC may not be valid because of the presumption that each single food item or nutrient has an isolated effect [6]. A dietary pattern in food choice is defined as a combination of the dietary components (food items, food groups, nutrients, or both) used to summarize elements of the total diet or the major features of the food choices for the population under study [7]. The descriptive summary of the dietary pattern has been used in nutritional epidemiology to explain and assess the overall dietary experience, by suggesting that the synergistic effects of the variety of dietary and non-dietary factors can be used to explain the relationship between diet and health [8]. In general, there are two dietary patterns: “Healthy” and “Western.” The healthy dietary pattern is largely characterized by a greater intake of fruits, vegetables, and grains, and a lower intake of sweets, red meat, and processed meat; this dietary pattern is considered to be associated with lowering the risk of developing CRC. Alternatively, the Western dietary pattern, reported to contain more meat, highly processed food, potatoes, refined carbohydrates, and much lower in vegetables and dietary fiber, has been reported to increase the risk of developing CRC [7, 9].


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reema F. Tayyem
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Nutrition and Food TechnologyUniversity of JordanAmmanJordan

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