Modifiable and Non-modifiable Risk Factors for Colon and Rectal Cancer

  • Smitha Padmanabhan
  • Mostafa I. Waly
  • Varna Taranikanti
  • Nejib Guizani
  • Mohammad S. Rahman
  • Amanat Ali
  • Zaher Al-Attabi
  • Richard C. Deth


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the world’s third most common cancer. Before the twentieth century, CRC was relatively uncommon; however, the incidence has risen dramatically especially in the last 50 years. Several risk factors have been proposed, including the adoption of westernized diet, obesity, and physical inactivity. The majority of colorectal cancer continues to occur in industrialized countries. According to the recent studies, CRC is associated with several modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. These risk factors involve CRC history in first-degree relative, inflammatory bowel disease, consumption of red meat, fruit, and vegetables, cigarette smoking, body mass index to overall population, race, gender, personal habit of alcohol consumption and smoking, ethnicity diabetes, and physical activity. Here we review the key evidence for the role of different risk factors and their effect on CRC prevention and progression.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Smitha Padmanabhan
    • 1
  • Mostafa I. Waly
    • 1
  • Varna Taranikanti
    • 2
  • Nejib Guizani
    • 1
  • Mohammad S. Rahman
    • 1
  • Amanat Ali
    • 1
  • Zaher Al-Attabi
    • 1
  • Richard C. Deth
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Agricultural and Marine SciencesSultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman
  2. 2.Department of Human and Clinical AnatomyCollege of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos UniversityMuscatOman
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutical SciencesNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA

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