Polyamines and Their Metabolic Engineering for Plant Salinity Stress Tolerance

  • Tushar Khare
  • Amrita Srivastav
  • Samrin Shaikh
  • Vinay Kumar


Polyamines (PAs) are small polycationic aliphatic amines and are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. They play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. Several research reports have established a correlation between their accumulation and salt stress tolerance in different plant species. Creditable research in the recent past has proved their vital roles in stress responses and adaptation strategies employed by plants, including scavenging of free radicals, neutralization of acids, and stabilization of cell membranes. They are able to bind several charged molecules including DNA, proteins, membrane phospholipids, and pectic polysaccharides, and have been credited with roles in protein phosphorylation and post-transcriptional modifications. They also play important roles in plant growth regulation, as well as acting as signaling molecules. Owing to their diverse functions in plant growth, development, and stress responses, they have emerged as potent targets for metabolic engineering to confer salt stress tolerance on manipulated plants. This chapter highlights their biosynthesis and transport, their exogenous applications to alleviate salt stress, and their metabolic engineering for developing salt-tolerant plants.


Salinity stress Polyamines Metabolic engineering Spermine Spermidine Putrescine Transgenics 



Abscisic acid


Aminocyclopropane carboxylate


Arginine decarboxylase


Ascorbate peroxidase


Complementary DNA


Diamine oxidase


Decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine


Ethyl methanesulfonate


Flavin adenine dinucleotide


Variable fluorescence/maximum fluorescence


Gamma aminobutyric acid


Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase


Glutamate pyruvate transaminase


Glutathione reductase


Glutamine synthetase


L-type amino acid transporter


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide


Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide


NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase


NADH–glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase


Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate


Nucleoside diphosphate kinase


Nitric oxide


Ornithine decarboxylic acid


Open reading frame




Photosystem II




Polyamine uptake transporter


Reactive oxygen species




S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase


S-adenosylmethionine synthetase


Superoxide dismutase




Spermidine synthase




Spermine synthase





The research work in the corresponding author’s laboratory is supported by Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India funds (grant number EMR/2016/003896). The authors acknowledge the use of facilities created under DST-FIST and DBT Star College Schemes implemented at Modern College, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tushar Khare
    • 1
  • Amrita Srivastav
    • 1
  • Samrin Shaikh
    • 1
  • Vinay Kumar
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyModern College of Arts, Science and Commerce (Savitribai Phule Pune University)PuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental ScienceSavitribai Phule Pune UniversityPuneIndia

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