The Glyoxalase System: A Possible Target for Production of Salinity-Tolerant Crop Plants

  • Tahsina Sharmin Hoque
  • David J. Burritt
  • Mohammad Anwar Hossain
Chapter

Abstract

Among the various abiotic stressors, soil salinity is one of the most detrimental, restricting the growth and productivity of major agricultural crops worldwide. Apart from ionic, osmotic, and oxidative stress, one of the most important biochemical impacts of salt stress on plants is overaccumulation of methylglyoxal (MG), a cytotoxic compound that can cause degradation of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, inactivation of antioxidant systems and, finally, the death of plants. However, plants possess a complex network of enzymatic and nonenzymatic scavenging and detoxification systems to defend against MG-induced glycation and oxidative stress. Among the various defense mechanisms employed by plants, the glyoxalase system (composed mainly of two enzymes—glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II) is the most important, playing a crucial role in detoxifying MG, as well as regulating glutathione homeostasis and reactive oxygen species metabolism. Apart from its deleterious effects on plant growth and development, MG also has important signaling roles associated with stress tolerance. Recent genetic engineering studies have shown that overexpression of glyoxalase genes confers tolerance of various abiotic stresses, including salinity stress. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge and understanding of MG and the glyoxalase pathway, with respect to salinity stress tolerance and the potential for use of genetic engineering of glyoxalase genes into crop plants to improve crop yields under salt stress.

Keywords

Salinity stress Ion homeostasis Methylglyoxal Glyoxalase system Oxidative stress Antioxidant defense Transgenic plants Stress tolerance Osmoprotectants Hormones Methylglyoxal signaling 

Abbreviations

1O2

Singlet oxygen

ABA

Abscisic acid

APX

Ascorbate peroxidase

AsA

Ascorbate

BR

Brassinosteroid

CAT

Catalase

CK

Cytokinin

DHAP

Dihydroxyacetone phosphate

DHAR

Dehydroascorbate reductase

ET

Ethylene

GA

Gibberellin

GAP

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

GB

Glycine betaine

Gly

Glyoxalase

GPX

Glutathione peroxidase

GR

Glutathione reductase

GSH

Reduced glutathione

GSSG

Oxidized glutathione

GST

Glutathione-S-transferase

HKT

High-affinity potassium transporter

IAA

Indole-3-acetic acid

JA

Jasmonate

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MDHAR

Monodehydroascorbate reductase

MG

Methylglyoxal

NAC

N-acetyl-L-cysteine

NHX

Na+/H+ exchanger

O2•–

Superoxide

OH

Hydroxyl radical

PCD

Programmed cell death

POD

Peroxidase

Pro

Proline

PSII

Photosystem II

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SA

Salicylic acid

SLG

S-D-lactoylglutathione

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

SOS

Salt Overly Sensitive

Notes

Acknowledgements

Mohammad Anwar Hossain thankfully acknowledges his postdoctoral fellowship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tahsina Sharmin Hoque
    • 1
  • David J. Burritt
    • 2
  • Mohammad Anwar Hossain
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Soil ScienceBangladesh Agricultural UniversityMymensinghBangladesh
  2. 2.Department of BotanyUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand
  3. 3.Department of Genetics and Plant BreedingBangladesh Agricultural UniversityMymensinghBangladesh
  4. 4.Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

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