• Katrina Harper-KirkseyEmail author


Erythroderma, often described as generalized exfoliative dermatitis, is a condition in which erythema involves greater than 90% of the body surface, often as a result of an underlying inflammatory skin condition, which can result in a variety of systemic manifestations and potentially lead to life-threatening complications.


Erythema Scaling Exfoliation Hypersensitivity Vasodilation Edema Systemic Drug reaction 


  1. 1.
    Khaled A, Sellami A, Fazaa B, Kharfi M, Zeglaoui F, Kamoun MR. Acquired erythroderma in adults: a clinical and prognostic study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010;24:781–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Usatine RP, Smith MA, Chumley HS, Mayeaux EJ Jr. Erythroderma. In: Usatine RP, Smith MA, Chumley HS, Mayeaux Jr EJ, editors. The color atlas of family medicine. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2013.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rothe MJ, Bernstein ML, Grant-Kels JM. Life-threatening erythroderma: diagnosing and treating the “red man”. Clin Dermatol. 2005;23:206–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pal S, Haroon TS. Erythroderma: a clinico-etiologic study of 90 cases. Int J Dermatol. 1998;37:104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Akhyani M, Ghodsi ZS, Toosi S, Dabbaghian H. Erythroderma: a clinical study of 97 cases. BMC Dermatol. 2005;5:5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rym BM, Mourad M, Bechir Z, et al. Erythroderma in adults: a report of 80 cases. Int J Dermatol. 2005;44:731.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Grant-Kels JM, Fedeles F, Rothe MJ. Exfoliative dermatitis. In: Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, Gilchrest BA, Paller AS, Leffell DJ, Wolff K, editors. Fitzpatrick’s dermatology in general medicine. 8th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Medical; 2012.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sheen YS, Chu CY, Wang SH, Tsai TF. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome in non-leprosy patients: a retrospective study of its incidence in a tertiary referral center in Taiwan. J Dermatol Treat. 2009;20:340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li J, Zheng HY. Erythroderma: a clinical and prognostic study. Dermatology. 2012;225:154–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sigurdsson V, Toonstra J, van Vloten WA. Idiopathic erythroderma: a follow-up study of 28 patients. Dermatology. 1997;194:98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Thestrup-Pedersen K, Halkier-Sørensen L, Søgaard H, Zachariae H. The red man syndrome. Exfoliative dermatitis of unknown etiology: a description and follow-up of 38 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:1307.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kanthraj GR, Srinivas CR, Devi PU, et al. Quantitative estimation and recommendations for supplementation of protein lost through scaling in exfoliative dermatitis. Int J Dermatol. 1999;38:91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sigurdsson V, Steegmans PH, van Vloten WA. The incidence of erythroderma: a survey among all dermatologists in the Netherlands. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;45:675.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sarkar R, Garg VK. Erythroderma in children. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2010;76:341. Sarkar R, Basu S, Sharma RC. Neonatal and infantile erythrodermas. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137:822CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fraitag S, Bodemer C. Neonatal erythroderma. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2010;22(4):438–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sigurdsson V, Toonstra J, Hezemans-Boer M, van Vloten WA. Erythroderma. A clinical and follow-up study of 102 patients, with special emphasis on survival. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996;35:53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sehgal VN, Srivastava G, Sardana K. Erythroderma/exfoliative dermatitis: a synopsis. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43:39–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sterry W, Steinhoff M. Erythroderma. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. Dermatology.3rd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:171–181.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bi MY, Curry JL, Christiano AM, et al. The spectrum of hair loss in patients with mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64:53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Klein A, Landthaler M, Karrer S. Pityriasis rubra pilaris: a review of diagnosis and treatment. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2010;11:157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rosenbach M, Hsu S, Korman NJ, Lebwohl MG, Young M, Bebo BF Jr, et al. Treatment of erythrodermic psoriasis: from the medical board of the National Psoriasis Foundation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;62(4):655–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mistry N, Gupta A, Alva A, Sibbald G. A review of the diagnosis and Management of Erythroderma (generalized red skin). In: Advances in skin and wound care: Woltkers Kluwer Health; 2015. p. 228–36.
  23. 23.
    Yuan XY, Guo JY, Dang YP, Qiao L, Liu W. Erythroderma: a clinical-etiological study of 82 cases. Eur J Dermatol. 2010;20(3):373–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lancrajan C, Bumbacea R, Giurcaneanu C. Erythrodermic atopic dermatitis with late onset casepresentation. J Med Life. 2010;3:80–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Botella-Estrada R, Sanmartin O, Oliver V, Febrer I, Aliaga A. Erythroderma. A clinicopathological study of 56 cases. Arch Dermatol. 1994;130:1503–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Griffiths WA. Pityriasis rubra pilaris. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1980;5:105. PMID7398119CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Megna M, Sidikov AA, Zaslavsky DV, Chuprov IN, Timoshchuk EA, Egorova U, et al. The role of histological presentation in erythroderma. Int J Dermatol. 2017;56(4):400–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ram-Wolff C, Martin-Garcia N, Bensussan A, Bagot M, Ortonne N. Histopathologic diagnosis of lymphomatous versus inflammatory erythroderma: a morphologic and phenotypic study on 47 skin biopsies. Am J Dermatopathol. 2010;32(8):755–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zip C, Murray S, Walsh NM. The specificity of histopathology in erythroderma. J Cutan Pathol. 1993;20:393.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vasconcellos C, Domingues PP, Aoki V, et al. Erythroderma: analysis of 247 cases. Rev Saude Publica. 1995;29:177.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Armstrong AW, Bagel J, Van Voorhees AS, Robertson AD, Yamauchi PS. Combining biologic therapies with other systemic treatments in psoriasis: evidence-based, best-practice recommendations from the medical Board of the National Psoriasis Foundation. JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151(4):432–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bruno TF, Grewal P. Erythroderma: a dermatologic emergency. CJEM. 2009;11(3):244–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Guttman-Yassky E, Dhingra N, Leung DY. New era of biologic therapeutics in atopic dermatitis. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2013;13(4):549–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shimizu H. Shimizu’s textbook of dermatology. 1st ed. Tokyo: Hokkaido University Press/Nakayama Shoten; 2007. p. 122–5.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Katsarou A, Armenaka M. Atopic dermatitis in older patients: particular points. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2011;25(1):12–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gelbard CM, Hebert AA. New and emerging trends in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2008;2:387–92.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Strober BE. Successful treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis with etanercept and methotrexate in a patient newly unresponsive to infliximab. Arch Dermatol. 2004;140:366.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Barland C, Kerdel FA. Addition of low-dose methotrexate to infliximab in the treatment of a patient with severe, recalcitrant pustular psoriasis. Arch Dermatol. 2003;139:949–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ladizinski B, Lee KC, Wilmer E, Alavi A, Mistry N, Sibbald RG. A review of the clinical variants and the management of psoriasis. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2013;26:271–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zattra E, Belloni Fortina A, Peserico A. Alaibac M. Erythroderma in the era of biological therapies. Eur J Dermatol. 2012;22(2):167–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rupoli S, Canafoglia L, Goteri G, Leoni P, Brandozzi G, Federici I, et al. Results of a prospective phase II trial with oral low dose bexarotene plus photochemotherapy (PUVA) in refractory and/or relapsed patients with mycosis fungoides. Eur J Dermatol. 2016;26(1):13–20.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sokolowska-Wojdylo M, Florek A, Zaucha JM, Chmielowska E, Giza A, Knopinska-Posluszny W, et al. Polish lymphoma research group experience with bexarotene in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Am J Ther. 2016;23(3):e749–56.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chung CG, Poligone B. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma: an update on pathogenesis and systemic therapy. Curr Hematol Malig Rep. 2015;10(4):468–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Galper SL, Smith BD, Wilson LD. Diagnosis and management of mycosis fungoides. Oncology (Williston Park). 2010;24(6):491–501.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wilcox RA. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: 2016 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management. Am J Hematol. 2016;91(1):151–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Al Hothali GI. Review of the treatment of mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome: a stage-based approach. Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2013;7(2):220–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Leger M, Newlove T, Robinson M, Patel R, Meehan S, Ramachandran S. Pityriasis rubra pilaris. Dermatol Online J. 2012;18(12):14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Boyd AS, Menter A. Erythrodermic psoriasis. Precipitating factors, course, and prognosis in 50 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21:985.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kubica AW, Davis MD, Weaver AL, et al. Sézary syndrome: a study of 176 patients at Mayo Clinic. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67:1189.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kim YH, Bishop K, Varghese A, Hoppe RT. Prognostic factors in erythrodermic mycosis fungoides and the Sezary syndrome. Arch Dermatol. 1995;131:1003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wang J, Wang YM, Ahn HY. Biological products for the treatment of psoriasis: therapeutic targets, pharmacodynamics and disease-drug-drug interaction implications. AAPS J. 2014;16(5):938–47.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cather JC, Crowley JJ. Use of biologic agents in combination with other therapies for the treatment of psoriasis. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2014;15(6):467–78.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Zattra E, Belloni Fortina A, Peserico A. Alaibac M. Erythroderma in the era of biological therapies. Eur J Dermatol. 2012;22(2):167–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Umar, S, Kelly P. Erythroderma (Generalized Exfoliative Dermatitis) clinical presentation. Medscape. (updated June 4 2018). Retrieved 2018 from

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Emergency Medicine, Department of Anesthesia Critical CareNYU Langone Medical CentersNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations