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Neurosurgical Anatomy and Approaches to Simulation in Neurosurgical Training

  • Antonio Bernardo
  • Alexander I. Evins
Chapter
Part of the Comprehensive Healthcare Simulation book series (CHS)

Abstract

Quality of neurosurgical care and patient outcomes are inextricably linked to surgical and technical proficiency and a thorough working knowledge of microsurgical anatomy. Simulated neurosurgical training is essential for the development and refinement of technical skills prior to their use on a living patient. Recent biotechnological advances—including 3D microscopy and endoscopy, 3D printing, virtual reality, surgical simulation, surgical robotics, and advanced neuroimaging—have proved to reduce the learning curve, improve conceptual understanding of complex anatomy, and enhance visuospatial skills in neurosurgical training. For developing neurosurgeons, such tools can reduce the learning curve, improve conceptual understanding of complex anatomy, and enhance visuospatial skills. We explore the current and future roles and application of virtual reality and simulation in neurosurgical training.

Keywords

Virtual reality Simulation Neurosurgery Surgical training Robotics Augmented reality Stereoscopic 3D 

Abbreviations and Acronyms

2D

Two-dimensional

3D

Three-dimensional

6D

6 Degrees

ADC

Apparent diffusion coefficient

AR

Augmented reality

ARAI

Augmented reality and artificial intelligence

CTA

Computed tomography angiography

FA

Fractional anisotropy

fMR

Functional magnetic resonance

HMDs

Head-mounted displays

MRA

Magnetic resonance angiography

OM

Operating microscope

OR

Operating room

RGB

Red green blue

SSML

Simulation markup language

VR

Virtual reality

VTK

Visualization tool kit

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Weill Cornell Medicine, Neurological SurgeryNew YorkUSA

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