Insular Pharmacology

  • Hasan Emre Aydın
  • İsmail Kaya


The insula is an area which is located deep to the sylvian fissure. It is a part of the cortex which receives sensory stimuli from the thalamus, amygdala, and limbic system; and transmits the received input to the premotor cortex and ventral striatum with the several receptors and signaling mechanisms. The receptors which are NMDA, GABA, dopamine, opioid muscarinic and glutamate, are located in different parts of the insula. Intercellular transmission in the cortex is mediated by action potential. When the anterior insula is considered as a whole, it plays a role in the organization of many activities such as attention, vocalization and music, cognitive control, perceptual decision-making, self-recognition, time perception and emotional awareness.


Insula NMDA GABA Dopamine Receptors 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hasan Emre Aydın
    • 1
  • İsmail Kaya
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryDumlupınar University, Medical FacultyKutahyaTurkey

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