Middle Longitudinal Fasciculus in the Human Brain from Fiber Dissection

  • Igor Lima Maldonado
  • Ilyess Zemmoura
  • Christophe Destrieux


Although the middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF) is not part of the insular lobe, it penetrates the temporal operculum, which is manipulated or partially removed during surgical approaches to the insula. We present a comprehensive description of that fascicle and its anatomical relationships with neighboring structures that have been described in previous chapters. It has been hypothesized that MdLF plays a role in attention and language processing; however studies with peroperative subcortical electrostimulation or temporal lobectomies did not demonstrate permanent language deficits following resection of its anterior segment. The MdLF has close relationships to adjacent bundles, such as the arcuate fasciculus and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus that are required to be recognized and differentiated for adequate interpretation of tractography images and surgical planning.


Fiber bundles Anatomy Middle longitudinal fasciculus Temporal operculum 


  1. 1.
    Schmahmann JD, Pandya DN. Fiber pathways of the brain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Inc.; 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Seltzer B, Pandya DN. Further observations on parieto-temporal connections in the rhesus monkey. Exp Brain Res. 1984;55:301–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schmahmann JD, Pandya DN, Wang R, Dai G, D’Arceuil HE, De Crespigny AJ, Wedeen VJ. Association fibre pathways of the brain: parallel observations from diffusion spectrum imaging and autoradiography. Brain. 2007;130:630–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Makris N, Papadimitriou GM, Kaiser JR, Sorg S, Kennedy DN, Pandya DN. Delineation of the middle longitudinal fascicle in humans: a quantitative, in vivo, DT-MRI study. Cereb Cortex. doi:bhn124 [pii]. 2008.
  5. 5.
    Maldonado IL, de Champfleur NM, Velut S, Destrieux C, Zemmoura I, Duffau H. Evidence of a middle longitudinal fasciculus in the human brain from fiber dissection. J Anat. 2013;223(1):38–45. Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kiriyama I, Miki H, Kikuchi K, Ohue S, Matsuda S, Mochizuki T. Topographic analysis of the inferior parietal lobule in high-resolution 3D MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30(3):520–4. Scholar
  7. 7.
    Makris N, Papadimitriou GM, Kaiser JR, Sorg S, Kennedy DN, Pandya DN. Delineation of the middle longitudinal fascicle in humans: a quantitative, in vivo, DT-MRI study. Cereb Cortex. 2009;19:777–85. doi:bhn124 [pii]. Scholar
  8. 8.
    Menjot N, Maldonado IL, Moritz-Gasser S, Le Bars E, Bonafe A, Duffau H. Middle longitudinal fasciculus delineation within language pathways. Eur J Radiol. 2013;82:151–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Makris N, Preti MG, Wassermann D, Rathi Y, Papadimitriou GM, Yergatian C, Dickerson BC, Shenton ME, Kubicki M. Human middle longitudinal fascicle: segregation and behavioral-clinical implications of two distinct fiber connections linking temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus with the angular gyrus or superior parietal lobule using multi-tensor tractography. Brain Imaging Behav. 2014;7(3):335–52. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Makris N, Preti MG, Asami T, Pelavin P, Campbell B, Papadimitriou GM, Kaiser J, Baselli G, Westin CF, Shenton ME, Kubicki M. Human middle longitudinal fascicle: variations in patterns of anatomical connections. Brain Struct Funct. 2014;218(4):951–68. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ribas GC, Oliveira E. The insula and the central core concept. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2007;65(1):92–100. doi: S0004-282X2007000100020 [pii]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    De Witt Hamer P, Moritz-Gasser S, Gatignol P, Duffau H. Is the human left middle longitudinal fascicle essential for language? A brain electrostimulation study. Hum Brain Mapp. 2010;32(6):962–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Igor Lima Maldonado
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ilyess Zemmoura
    • 3
    • 5
  • Christophe Destrieux
    • 3
    • 5
  1. 1.Departamento de BiomorfologiaInstituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal da BahiaSalvadorBrazil
  2. 2.Serviço de Neurocirurgia, Unidade Neuro-Músculo-Esquelética, C.H.U. Prof. Edgard SantosSalvadorBrazil
  3. 3.UMR 1253, iBrain, Université de ToursInsermFrance
  4. 4.LE STUDIUM Loire Valley Institute for Advanced StudiesOrléansFrance
  5. 5.CHRU de Tours, Service de NeurochirurgieToursFrance

Personalised recommendations