Processing Internal and External Stimuli in the Insula: A Very Rough Simplification

  • Alfonso Barrós-LoscertalesEmail author


Prediction as present is created through the integration of exteroception, interoception, and proprioception at the insula. The insula leads brain function according to the detection of error predictions based on the inner and outer goals to reflect a homeostatic state. While errors are not detected, insula OFF work involves a continuous perceptual sampling for any error prediction in integration and serves to the motivation led by maintaining homeostasis in a person. Otherwise when error prediction is detected, insular ON work involves the processes of information integration to encode new/unpredicted events in new prediction codes that are tested by continuous perceptual reconstruction and sampling according to information processing. From perception to action, it is suggested that all these processes interact. Consciousness may take place at any time from perception to emotion, to action, and so on. Once we integrate the new prediction code, perceptual sampling continues. This process takes place in the present time, and only for its present conditions, based on past experiences and future representations that take place at the current time. Finally, disease will arise from any disruption in error processing due to the hyperorganization or disorganization while processing any error prediction.


Insula Prediction error Prediction models Brain organization Interoception 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento Psicología Básica, Clínica y PsicobiologíaUniversitat Jaume ICastelló de la PlanaSpain

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