Advertisement

Alterations of Reil’s Insula in Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Paul Choi
  • Emily Simonds
  • Marc Vetter
  • Charlotte Wilson
  • R. Shane Tubbs
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter looks at the link between Alzheimer’s disease and the insula. This review also encompasses general histology and pathology of Alzheimer’s. It is a comprehensive review of; the first known case reports, the pillars of clinical diagnosis and its implications for treatment and further research.

Keywords

Insular cortex, atrophy Alzheimer’s disease Structural remodeling Circuit Neuropathology Insular function Brain imaging Functions Limbic system Major depressive disorder Frontotemporal dementia Non-fluent progressive aphasia Neurofibrillary tangles Diabetes Memory Cognition Executive functioning 

Abbreviations

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

FTD

Frontotemporal dementia

IC

Insular cortex

MDD

Major depressive disorder

NFPA

Nonfluent progressive aphasia

NFTs

Neurofibrillary tangles

References

  1. 1.
    Ballard C, Gauthier S, Corbett A, Brayne C, Aarsland D, Jones E. Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet. 2011;377(9770):1019–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Braak H, Braak E. Neuropathological stageing of Alzheimer-related changes. Acta Neuropathol. 1991;82(4):239–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sandor T, Jolesz F, Tieman J, Kikinis R, Jones K, Albert M. Comparative analysis of computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging scans in Alzheimer patients and controls. Arch Neurol. 1992;49(4):381–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Braak H, Braak E. Staging of Alzheimer’s disease-related neurofibrillary changes. Neurobiol Aging. 1995;16(3):271–8; discussion 8–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arnold SE, Hyman BT, Flory J, Damasio AR, Van Hoesen GW. The topographical and neuroanatomical distribution of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Cereb Cortex. 1991;1(1):103–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Whitehouse PJ, Price DL, Clark AW, Coyle JT, DeLong MR. Alzheimer disease: evidence for selective loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis. Ann Neurol. 1981;10(2):122–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mesulam MM, Mufson EJ. Neural inputs into the nucleus basalis of the substantia innominata (Ch4) in the rhesus monkey. Brain. 1984;107(Pt 1):253–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mesulam MM, Mufson EJ. Insula of the old world monkey. I. Architectonics in the insulo-orbito-temporal component of the paralimbic brain. J Comp Neurol. 1982;212(1):1–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mufson EJ, Mesulam MM. Insula of the old world monkey. II: afferent cortical input and comments on the claustrum. J Comp Neurol. 1982;212(1):23–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Seltzer B, Pandya DN. Post-rolandic cortical projections of the superior temporal sulcus in the rhesus monkey. J Comp Neurol. 1991;312(4):625–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Foundas AL, Leonard CM, Mahoney SM, Agee OF, Heilman KM. Atrophy of the hippocampus, parietal cortex, and insula in Alzheimer’s disease: a volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 1997;10(2):81–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bonthius DJ, Solodkin A, Van Hoesen GW. Pathology of the insular cortex in Alzheimer disease depends on cortical architecture. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2005;64(10):910–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Weiner MW, Veitch DP, Aisen PS, Beckett LA, Cairns NJ, Green RC, et al. The Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative: a review of papers published since its inception. Alzheimers Dement. 2013;9(5):e111–94.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bakkour A, Morris JC, Wolk DA, Dickerson BC. The effects of aging and Alzheimer’s disease on cerebral cortical anatomy: specificity and differential relationships with cognition. NeuroImage. 2013;76:332–44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Serrano-Pozo A, Frosch MP, Masliah E, Hyman BT. Neuropathological alterations in Alzheimer disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2011;1(1):a006189.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Van Dam D, Vermeiren Y. Neuropsychiatric disturbances in Alzheimer’s disease: what have we learned from neuropathological studies? Curr Alzheimer Res. 2016;13:1145–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Petrides FE, Mavroudis IA, Spilioti M, Chatzinikolaou FG, Costa VG, Baloyannis SJ. Spinal alterations of Reil insula in Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2017;32(4):222–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sliz D, Hayley S. Major depressive disorder and alterations in insular cortical activity: a review of current functional magnetic imaging research. Front Hum Neurosci. 2012;6:323.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee HY, Tae WS, Yoon HK, Lee BT, Paik JW, Son KR, et al. Demonstration of decreased gray matter concentration in the midbrain encompassing the dorsal raphe nucleus and the limbic subcortical regions in major depressive disorder: an optimized voxel-based morphometry study. J Affect Disord. 2011;133(1–2):128–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ossenkoppele R, Pijnenburg YA, Perry DC, Cohn-Sheehy BI, Scheltens NM, Vogel JW, et al. The behavioural/dysexecutive variant of Alzheimer’s disease: clinical, neuroimaging and pathological features. Brain. 2015;138(Pt 9):2732–49.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    de Araujo IE, Geha P, Small DM. Orosensory and homeostatic functions of the insular taste cortex. Chemosens Percept. 2012;5(1):64–79.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Avery JA, Powell JN, Breslin FJ, Lepping RJ, Martin LE, Patrician TM, et al. Obesity is associated with altered mid-insula functional connectivity to limbic regions underlying appetitive responses to foods. J Psychopharmacol. 2017;31(11):1475–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mandelli ML, Vitali P, Santos M, Henry M, Gola K, Rosenberg L, et al. Two insular regions are differentially involved in behavioral variant FTD and nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA. Cortex. 2016;74:149–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gu Y, Scarmeas N, Cosentino S, Brandt J, Albert M, Blacker D, et al. Change in body mass index before and after Alzheimer’s disease onset. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2014;11(4):349–56.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Luchsinger JA, Cheng D, Tang MX, Schupf N, Mayeux R. Central obesity in the elderly is related to late-onset Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2012;26(2):101–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Luchsinger JA, Gustafson DR. Adiposity, type 2 diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;16(4):693–704.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dineley KT, Jahrling JB, Denner L. Insulin resistance in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2014;72(Pt A):92–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stephani C, Fernandez-Baca Vaca G, Maciunas R, Koubeissi M, Luders HO. Functional neuroanatomy of the insular lobe. Brain Struct Funct. 2011;216(2):137–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    de Morree HM, Rutten GJ, Szabo BM, Sitskoorn MM, Kop WJ. Effects of insula resection on autonomic nervous system activity. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2016;28(2):153–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Colurso GJ, Kan RK, Anthony A. Microdensitometric measures of cytoplasmic RNA and total protein in pyramidal neurons of the insular cortex and midfrontal gyrus in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Cell Biochem Funct. 1995;13(4):287–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Philippi N, Kemp J, Constans-Erbs M, Hamdaoui M, Monjoin L, Ehrhard E, et al. Insular cognitive impairment at the early stage of dementia with Lewy bodies: a preliminary study. Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil. 2017;15(3):329–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    O'Doherty J, Rolls ET, Francis S, Bowtell R, McGlone F. Representation of pleasant and aversive taste in the human brain. J Neurophysiol. 2001;85(3):1315–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gorno-Tempini ML, Dronkers NF, Rankin KP, Ogar JM, Phengrasamy L, Rosen HJ, et al. Cognition and anatomy in three variants of primary progressive aphasia. Ann Neurol. 2004;55(3):335–46.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Choi J, Jeong Y. Elevated emotional contagion in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease is associated with increased synchronization in the insula and amygdala. Sci Rep. 2017;7:46262.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Choi
    • 1
  • Emily Simonds
    • 1
  • Marc Vetter
    • 1
  • Charlotte Wilson
    • 1
  • R. Shane Tubbs
    • 1
  1. 1.Seattle Science FoundationSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations