Prehypertension, Statistics and Health Burden

  • Andrzej Januszewicz
  • Aleksander Prejbisz
Part of the Updates in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Protection book series (UHCP)


Since release of the Seventh Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of Hypertension [JNC-7] report in 2003, new data provided a compelling argument for using the concept of prehypertension and focusing attention on the range of systolic blood pressure of 120–139 mmHg and diastolic BP between 80 and 89 mmHg as having clinical and public health significance. The prevalence of prehypertension and its associated risk factors has been investigated worldwide indicating that prehypertension is a common condition across age, sex, ethnicity, and geographical boundaries in countries with both developed and developing economies. Prevalence estimates in population-based samples range from 22 to 38% with only few studies reporting prevalence higher than 50%. Individuals with prehypertension are carrying a twofold to threefold higher risk of developing hypertension than those who are normotensive. The results of available meta-analyses confirm previous study and reports indicating that individuals with prehypertension free from cardiovascular disease are carrying increased relative risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and total cardiovascular disease. Based on the available studies prehypertension increases the risk of myocardial infarction by 3.5 times and coronary artery disease by 1.7 times. In summary, prevention strategies need to be carefully considered to design and implement strategies both to reduce population-attributable risk among the majority of subjects who are at low-to-moderate risk, and to decrease adverse outcomes among individuals with prehypertension who are at high risk.


Prehypertension High-normal blood pressure Normal blood pressure Cardiovascular risk Prevalence Health burden Consequences 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrzej Januszewicz
    • 1
  • Aleksander Prejbisz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HypertensionInstitute of CardiologyWarsawPoland

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