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Prehypertension, the Risk of Hypertension and Events

  • Michael Doumas
  • Niki Katsiki
  • Dimitri P. Mikhailidis
Chapter
Part of the Updates in Hypertension and Cardiovascular Protection book series (UHCP)

Abstract

Prehypertension is a precursor of hypertension in a high proportion of individuals. Several factors may predispose to the development of prehypertension including uric acid, dietary salt intake, arterial stiffness, autonomic imbalance, obesity, and subclinical inflammation.

Progression of prehypertension to hypertension has been associated with visceral abdominal fat, sympathetic overactivity, sympathovagal imbalance, endothelial dysfunction, impairment of coronary flow reserve, and metabolic syndrome. Age, gender, ethnicity, and baseline blood pressure may also affect the incidence of hypertension.

Prehypertension is associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular death, but not all-cause mortality. Lifestyle measures and antihypertensive drugs may delay or even prevent the progression of prehypertension to hypertension.

Keywords

Prehypertension Hypertension Antihypertensive drugs Cardiovascular morbidity Cardiovascular mortality All-cause death Chronic kidney disease 

Notes

Declaration of Interest

This review was written independently; no company or institution supported the authors financially or by providing a professional writer. M.D. received honoraria from Menarini, WinMedica, Bayer, Boehringer, Merck, and Unipharma. N.K. has given talks, attended conferences, and participated in trials sponsored by Amgen, Angelini, Astra Zeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Galenica, MSD, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi, and WinMedica. D.P.M. has given talks and attended conferences sponsored by MSD, AstraZeneca, and Libytec.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Doumas
    • 1
  • Niki Katsiki
    • 1
  • Dimitri P. Mikhailidis
    • 2
  1. 1.Second Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine, Medical SchoolAristotle University of Thessaloniki, Hippocration HospitalThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Free Hospital CampusUniversity College London Medical School, University College London (UCL)LondonUK

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