Advertisement

Groundwater Resources of India: Potential, Challenges and Management

  • Dipankar SahaEmail author
  • Ranjan K. Ray
Chapter

Abstract

Recent research has revealed that two-thirds of the world’s population currently lives in areas that experience water scarcity for at least 1 month a year. Noteworthy is that about 50% of the people facing this level of water scarcity live in China and India (UN-Water 2017). Though India receives a copious annual precipitation of around 4000 × 109 m3, only around one fourth (1123 × 109 m3) of it is utilizable. A country is considered to be under regular water stress when the renewable water supplies drop below 1700 m3 per capita per year and it faces chronic water scarcity when the water supplies drop below 1000 m3 per capita per year (Falkenmark and Widstrand 1992). The per capita average water availability in India in the year 2001 was 1816 m3 which is likely to reduce to 1140 m3 in 2050 (MoWR 2015). In the recent past, major share of the increased demand for water has been met from aquifers and groundwater has steadily emerged as the backbone of India’s agriculture and drinking water security (Vijay Shankar et al. 2011). Today, contribution of groundwater is ~62% in irrigation, ~85% in rural water supply and ~45% in urban water consumption. High dependence on groundwater resources has led to stressed conditions in various parts of the country. This calls for holistic understanding of the aquifer systems and management of this precious natural resource in a sustainable manner.

References

  1. BIS (2012). Indian standard-drinking water specification (second revision) IS 10500:2012, Bureau of Indian standards, Govt. of India (http://cgwb.gov.in/Documents/WQ-Standards.pdf)
  2. BIS (2015). Amendment No. 1 to IS 10500:2012 drinking water specification (second revision), Bureau of Indian standards, Govt. of India (http://cgwb.gov.in/Documents/WQ-Standards.pdf)
  3. CGWA (2015). Guidelines/Criteria for evaluation of proposals/requests for ground water abstraction (With effect from 16.11.2015). Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA). 27 p. http://www.cgwb.gov.in/CGWA/Documents/Revised%20guidelines_12112015.pdf accessed 15th May 2017.
  4. CGWB (2006). State Report: Hydrogeology of Chhattisgarh. Unpublished Report, CGWB, NCCR, Raipur, India, 184 p.Google Scholar
  5. CGWB (2010). Ground water quality in shallow aquifers of India. Central Ground Water Board, MoWR, RD&GR, Govt of India. http://www.cgwb.gov.in/WQ/gw_quality_in_shallow_aquifers.pdf. Accessed 15th May 2017.Google Scholar
  6. CGWB (2012a). Aquifer systems of India. Central Ground Water Board, MoWR, RD&GR, Govt of India. http://www.cgwb.gov.in/AQM/India.pdf
  7. CGWB (2012b). Water management challenges in islands of India. Central Ground Water Board, MoWR, RD&GR, Govt of India, 163 p.Google Scholar
  8. CGWB (2014a). Dynamic ground water resources of India (As on 31st March 2011) Faridabad July 2014, http://www.cgwb.gov.in/Documents/Dynamic-GW-Resources-2011.pdf
  9. CGWB (2014b). Concept Note On geogenic contamination of ground water in India with a special note on Nitrate. Central Ground Water Board, MoWR, RD&GR, Govt of India. http://www.cgwb.gov.in/WQ/Geogenic%20Final.pdf
  10. CGWB (2014c). Status of ground water quality in coastal aquifers of India. Central Ground Water Board, MoWR, RD&GR, Govt of India http://www.cgwb.gov.in/WQ/Costal%20Report.pdf
  11. CGWB (2016). Ground water year book of India 2014-15, CGWB, Ministry of WR, RD&GR, Govt of India. http://cgwb.gov.in/Ground Water/Ground%20Water%20Year%20Book%202014-15.pdfGoogle Scholar
  12. Chatterjee, R. and Purohit, R. (2009). Estimation of Replenishable groundwater resources of India and their status of utilization. Curr. Sci., 96(12), doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-009-0064-yCGWB2016.
  13. Dar, F.A., Perrin, J., Ahmed, S. and Narayana, A.C. (2014). Review: Carbonate aquifers and future perspectives of karst hydrogeology in India. Hydrogeol J, 22(7): 1493–1506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Falkenmark, M. and Widstrand, C. (1992). Population and water resources: A delicate balance. Population Bulletin No. 3. Population Reference Bureau, Washington DC. http://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/276-92PO-10997.pdf.
  15. Foster, S. (2012). Hard-rock aquifers in tropical regions: Using science to inform development and management policy. Hydrogeol J, 20(4): 659-672, doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-011-0828-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. FRRDF (1999). State-of-art report on the extent of fluoride in drinking water and the resulting endemicity in India. Fluorosis Research and Rural Development Foundation, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  17. Ghose, N.C., Saha, D. and Gupta, A. (2009). Synthetic detergents (surfactants) and organochlorine pesticide signatures in surface water and groundwater of greater Kolkata, India. Journal of Water Resources and Protection. doi:  https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2009.14036.
  18. Karanth, K.R. (2003). Ground Water Assessment Development and Management. Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  19. Ketabchi, H. and Ataie-Ashtiani, B. (2015). Review: Coastal groundwater optimization—advances, challenges, and practical solutions. J Hydrol, 23: 1129–1154. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-015-1254-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Koonan, S. (2016). Revamping the groundwater legal regime in India: Towards ensuring equity and sustainability. Socio-Legal Review, 12(2): 45–73.Google Scholar
  21. Kulkarni, H., Shah, M. and Vijay Shankar, P.S. (2015). Shaping the contours of groundwater governance in India. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 4(A): 172–192.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2014.11.004 Google Scholar
  22. Loksabha2017a. Written reply to the question no. 3663 regarding contamination of ground water tabled in the Loksabha on 23.03.2017 http://164.100.47.194/Loksabha/Questions/QResult15.aspx?qref=51044&lsno=16
  23. Loksabha2017b. Written reply to the question no. 4712 regarding rainwater harvesting tabled in the Loksabha on 30.03.2017. http://164.100.47.190/loksabhaquestions/annex/11/AU4712.pdf
  24. MoWR (2002). National Water Policy – 2002. Ministry of Water Resources, Govt of India. http://wrmin.nic.in/writereaddata/NationalWaterPolicy/nwp20025617515534.pdf
  25. MoWR (2005). Model bill 2005: Model Bill to regulate and control the development and management of ground water, 2005 http://cgwb.gov.in/NEW/CGWA/Documents/Model-bill.pdf
  26. MoWR (2009). Report of the ground water resource estimation committee. Ministry of Water Resources, Govt. of India. 107 p. http://cgwb.gov.in/documents/gec97.pdf . Cited 18 November 2016Google Scholar
  27. MoWR (2011). Model bill 2011: Model bill for the protection, conservation, management and regulation of groundwater. Draft of 18 October 2011 http://www.planningcommission.gov.in/aboutus/committee/wrkgrp12/wr/mb_wtrgrndsor_181011.pdf
  28. MoWR (2015). A year of Inclusive Development in Water Resources sector. National Water Mission, Ministry of WR, RD&GR, Govt of India. http://www.nationalwatermission.gov.in/sites/default/files/COP%2021%20MoWR%20Booklet.pdf (accessed 17 January 2017).
  29. MoWR, RD & GR (2016). Model bill for the conservation, protection, regulation and management of groundwater, 2016. Draft of 17 May 2016, Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, Govt of India. http://wrmin.nic.in/writereaddata/Model_Bill_Groundwater_May_2016.pdf
  30. Mukherjee, A., Ray, R.K., Tewari, D., Ingle, V.K., Sahoo, B.K. and Khan, M.W.Y. (2014). Revisiting the stratigraphy of the Mesoproterozoic Chhattisgarh Supergroup, Bastar craton, India based on subsurface litho information. J Earth Syst Sci, 123(3): 617–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mukherjee, A., Tewari, D., Verma, J.R., Subramanian, S., Ray, R.K. and Devangan, R. (2009). Geogenic arsenic contamination to ground water in parts of Ambagarh Chowki Block, Rajnandgaon District, Chhattisgarh. Bhujal News, 24(2): 40–58.Google Scholar
  32. Najeeb, K. Md. and Vinaychandran, N. (2011). Groundwater Scenario in Lakshadweep Islands. Journal Geological Society of India, 78(4), doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-011-0095-3.
  33. NGWA (2016). Facts about global groundwater usage compiled by NGWA, the groundwater association. http://www.ngwa.org/Fundamentals/use/Documents/global-groundwater-use-fact-sheet.pdf Cited 12 June 2016.
  34. Rangarajan, R. and Athavale, R.N. (2000). Annual replenishable groundwater potential of India—An estimate based on injected tritium studies. J Hydrol, 234: 38–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ray, R.K., Mukherjee, A. and Mukherjee, R. (2014). Estimation of specific yields of individual litho-units in a terrain with multiple litho-units: A water balance approach. J Geol Soc India, 84(2): 221–225, doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-014-0126-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ray, R.K., Syed, T.H., Saha, D., Sarkar, B.C. and Reddy, D.V. (2017). Recharge mechanism and processes controlling groundwater chemistry in a Precambrian sedimentary terrain: A case study from Central India. Environ Earth Sci, 76: 136, doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-017-6435-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Saha, D. and Agrawal, A.K. (2006). Determination of specific yield using a water balance approach: Case study of Torla Odha watershed in Deccan Trap province, Maharashtra State, India. Hydrogeol J, 14: 625–635, doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-005-0471-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Saha, D., Upadhyay, S., Dhar, Y.R. and Singh, R. (2007). The aquifer system and evaluation of its hydraulic parameters in parts of South Ganga Plain, Bihar, India. J Geol Soc Ind, 69: 1031–1041.Google Scholar
  39. Saha, D., Sinha, U.K. and Dwivedi, S.N. (2011). Characterization of recharge processes in shallow and deeper aquifers using isotopic signatures and geochemical behavior of groundwater in an arsenic-enriched part of the Ganga Plain. Appl Geochem, doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.01.003.
  40. Saha, D. and Alam, F. (2014). Groundwater vulnerability assessment using DRASTIC and Pesticide DRASTIC models in intense agriculture area of the Gangetic plains, India. Environ Monit Assess, doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-4041-x.
  41. Saha, D., Dwivedi, S.N. and Singh, R.K. (2013). Aquifer system response to intensive pumping in urban areas of the Gangetic plains, India: The case study of Patna Urban area. Environ Erth Sci, doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-013-2577-7.
  42. Saha, D. (2009). Arsenic groundwater contamination in parts of Middle Ganga Plain, Bihar.Current Sci, 97: 753–755.Google Scholar
  43. Saha, D., Sreehari, S.M.S., Dwivedi, S.N. and Bhartariya, K.G. (2009). Evaluation of hydrogeochemical processes in arsenic contaminated alluvial aquifers in parts of MidGanga Basin, Bihar, Eastern India. Environ. Earth Sci., doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-009-0392-y.
  44. Saha, D., Sahoo, S. and Chandra, P.C. (2010). Arsenic safe alternate aquifers and their hydraulic characteristics in contaminated areas of Middle Ganga Plain, Eastern India. Environ Assess and Monit, doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1535-z.
  45. Sahu, S. and Saha, D. (2015). Role of shallow alluvial stratigraphy and Holocene geomorphology on groundwater arsenic contamination in the Middle Ganga Plain, India. Environ Erth Sci, 73(7): 3523–3536, doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3637-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Taylor, G.C. Jr. (1959). Ground Water provinces of India. Economic Geology, 54(4): 683–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. UNESCO (2008). Groundwater Resources of Asia. BGR, Hannover/UNESCO, Paris, https://www.whymap.org/whymap/EN/Downloads/Continental_maps/contimaps_node_en.html Google Scholar
  48. UN-Water (2017). Wastewater the untapped resource. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2017. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris.Google Scholar
  49. Vijay Shankar, P.S., Kulkarni, H. and Krishnan, S. (2011). India’s Groundwater Challenge and the Way Forward. Economic and Political Weekly, XLVI(2), January 8.Google Scholar
  50. White, I. and Falkland, T. (2010). Management of freshwater lenses on small Pacific islands. Hydrogeol J, 18(1): 227–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Capital Publishing Company, New Delhi, India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Central Ground Water BoardFaridabadIndia

Personalised recommendations