Hydrogeological Assessment for Development and Management of Baseflow for Public Water Supply in Semi-arid and Fluoride Affected Hard Rock Areas

  • Pradip K. SikdarEmail author
  • Shouri Dutta
  • Saheb Das
  • Surajit Chakraborty
  • Utsab Ghosal


Worldwide, water resources in arid and semi-arid regions are finite; water tables are very low and run off is very high. Many of these areas have rapid growth of population resulting in increasing demand for water, deteriorating water quality, increasing environmental degradation and impending climate change. This situation requires more effort to assess water resources for local, regional and national planning and management in order to sustain development. Most of the economically viable development of water resources has already been implemented (Hamdy et al. 1995). The gap between demand and supply of water is increasing steadily in these regions. Therefore, it has now become imperative to develop innovative management options to close the gap between demand and supply of water which should take into consideration environmental concerns (Shadeed et al. 2007). In these areas groundwater is commonly the most important water resource. In many areas the groundwater has been over-exploited leading to the rapid fall in the water table or increase in the cost of exploitation because of the nature and disposition of the aquifer system. Baseflow which is a component of stream flow that is attributed to shallow groundwater discharge has generally been left unutilized. Therefore, development of baseflow for small to medium water supplies can be an important component of water management strategies in semi-arid areas of the world, in general and India, in particular.



The work was supported by PHED grant no. 4178/79/H/2011 dated 25.03.2015 to the first author. The authors thank Goutam Roy Chowdhury, B.R. Poddar, Ajay Kundu, Tanay Das, Santanu Chowdhury, Arindam Mazumder, Pareshnath Roy and Sudip Ghosh of PHED, Government of West Bengal; Director, IISWBM for providing necessary infrastructure for the research; Jyotirmoy Majumdar, Scientific Research Laboratory for assistance in chemical analysis and Apurba Mondal and his team for assistance in drilling.


  1. Ali, M. (2003). Review of drilling and tubewell technology for groundwater irrigation. In: Rahman, A.A. Ravenscroft, P. (eds), Groundwater resources and development in Bangladesh—background to be arsenic crisis, agricultural potential and the environment. Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, University Press Ltd., Dhaka.Google Scholar
  2. APHA (American Public Health Association) (1995). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 19th edition. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  3. Ball, P. and Danert, K. (1999). Hand and Sludging: A Report from Northwest Bengal. Report of DFID KAR Project R7126 “Private Sector Participation in Low Cost Water Well Drilling”, Cranfield University. ISBN 1861940.Google Scholar
  4. IS 10500 (2012) Indian Standard Drinking Water—Specification (Second Revision). Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  5. CGWB (Central Ground Water Board) and SWID (State Water Investigation Directorate) (2011). Report on the dynamic ground water resources of West Bengal as on 31.03.2009, technical report series ‘B’ No. 234.Google Scholar
  6. Chakrabarti, S., Majumder, A. and Bhattacharya, H.N. (2012). Fluoride contamination in groundwater of Bankura District, West Bengal: A Hydrogeo-Environmental Appraisal. J Water Works Association, April–June 2012, 134–142.Google Scholar
  7. Cooper, H.H. and Jacob, C.E. (1946). A generalized graphical method for evaluating formation constants and summarizing well field history. American Geophysical Union Transactions, 27: 526–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DHDR (District Human Development Report, Bankura) (2007). Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Published by HDRCC Development & Planning Department Government of West Bengal.Google Scholar
  9. Driscoll, F.G. (1986). Groundwater and Wells. 2nd ed. Johnson Division, St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  10. EROS (2002) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Elevation Data Set. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), German Aerospace Center (DLR), Italian Space Agency (ASI). From: the National Center for Earth Resources Observations and Science, US Geological Survey, Sioux Falls.Google Scholar
  11. Folk, R.L. (1968). Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. University of Texas Publication, Austin. 170 p.Google Scholar
  12. Freeze, R.A. and Cherry, J.A. (1979). Groundwater. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 604 p.Google Scholar
  13. Hamdy, A., Abu-Zeid, M. and Lacirignola, C. (1995). Water Resource Management in the Mediterranean Basin. Water Resources Development, 11(4): 24–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McArthur, J.M., Sikdar, P.K., Hoque, M.A. and Ghosal, U. (2012). Waste water impacts on groundwater: Cl/Br ratios and implications for arsenic pollution of groundwater in the Bengal Basin and Red River Basin, Vietnam. Sc of the Tot Env, 437: 390–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nickson, R., McArthur, J.M., Ravenscroft, P., Burges, W.G. and Ahmed, K.M. (2000). Mechanism of arsenic release to groundwater, Bangladesh and West Bengal. J Appl. Geochem, 15: 403–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ray, A. and Shekhar, S. (2009). Groundwater issues and development strategies in West Bengal. Bhu-Jal News, 24(1): 1–17.Google Scholar
  17. Roy, A.K. and Saha, A.K. (1975). Trace element geochemistry of Bengal Anorthosite and Associated rocks. N. Jb. Miner. Abh., 125(3): 297–314.Google Scholar
  18. Roy, A.K. (1977). Structural and Metamorphic Evolution of the Bengal Anorthosites and Associated Rocks. J Geol Soc Ind, 18(5): 203–223.Google Scholar
  19. Saha, A.K., Dasgupta, S.P., Saha, D., Pal, S. and Sikdar, P.K. (1995). An approach to management of the groundwater problems of Bankura District, West Bengal. Indian Minerals (now Indian Journal of Geosciences), 49(1–2): 1–12.Google Scholar
  20. Sengupta, S., McArthur, J.M., Sarkar, A.K., Leng, M., Ravenscroft, P., Howarth, R.J. et al. (2008). Do ponds cause arsenic-pollution of groundwater in the Bengal Basin? : An answer from West Bengal. Env Sc Tech, 42: 5156–5164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shadeed Sameer, Shaheen Hafez and Jayyousi Anan (2007). Management options of wadi faria baseflow. Eleventh International Water Technology Conference, IWTC11.Google Scholar
  22. Theis, C.V. (1935). The relation between the lowering of the piezometric surface and the rate and duration of discharge of well using groundwater storage. American Geophysical Union Trans., 16: 519–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Capital Publishing Company, New Delhi, India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pradip K. Sikdar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shouri Dutta
    • 1
  • Saheb Das
    • 2
  • Surajit Chakraborty
    • 1
  • Utsab Ghosal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environment ManagementIndian Institute of Social Welfare and Business ManagementKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Ground Water StudiesKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations