Advertisement

Traumatogenic Disturbances: PTSD, Complex PTSD and Trauma-Related Disorders

  • Clara Mucci
  • Andrea Scalabrini
  • Georg Northoff
Chapter

Abstract

Regarding traumatogenic disturbances, there were many changes and new developments during last years both in the psychodynamic understanding and in neuroscience. DSM-5 made major changes on PTSD but didn’t recognise the diagnosis of complex PTSD, which is now established in the PDM-2, and it is accepted by the task force for the expected ICD-11.

In this work our aim is to shed a novel light on the neuropsychodynamic understanding of trauma and its manifestations both at a psychological and at a neuroscientific level.

The first distinction to be made is that between the so-called man-made trauma, i.e. trauma due to the violence of another human being, or even within a relationship, and traumatisation resulting from a natural catastrophe (earthquake, typhoon, etc.).

We need also to distinguish different levels of interpersonal traumatisations: (1) severe lack of attunement between child and caregiver (early relational trauma) from severe neglect, maltreatment, abuse and incest, resulting in emotional dysregulation, distortion of reality and destructiveness of the self or aggressiveness against the other; (2) maltreatment and abuse and identification with the aggressor, where the two sides, victim and aggressor, remain embedded within the psyche and intertwined within the personality, repeating a chain of violence; and (3) massive trauma and the consequence for traumatic generations. The effects of trauma of human agency on the brain will be discussed.

Adverse early experiences (early life stress, ELS) have a profound impact on individual differences in stress responsiveness and are associated with an increased vulnerability for psychiatric disorders, such as depression, in later life. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that ELS also modulates the development of the oxytonergic system. In adults with childhood maltreatment, it was shown that the suppressing effect of OXT on cortisol levels is significantly reduced. A recent study rather supports the hypothesis of inverse or even detrimental oxytocin effects in subjects with ELS experiences. The presented findings demonstrate how crucial it is to consider environmental factors and particularly early social experiences prior to a therapeutic administration of oxytocin.

References

  1. Abraham N, Torok M. The shell and the kernel: renewals of psychoanalysis, vol. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1994.Google Scholar
  2. Ainsworth MDS, Eichberg C. Effects on infant-mother attachment of mother’s unresolved loss of an attachment figure, or other traumatic experience. In: Parkes CM, Stevenson-Hinde J, Marris P, editors. Attachment across the life cycle, vol. 3. New York: Tavistock; 1991. p. 160–83.Google Scholar
  3. Bai Y, Nakao T, Xu J, Qin P, Chaves P, Heinzel A, et al. Resting state glutamate predicts elevated pre-stimulus alpha during self-relatedness: a combined EEG-MRS study on “rest-self overlap”. Soc Neurosci. 2016;11(3):249–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker L, Silk KR, Westen D, Nigg JT, Lohr NE. Malevolence, splitting, and parental ratings by borderlines. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1992;180:258–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bateman A, Fonagy P. Mentalization-based treatment for borderline personality disorder: a practical guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bohleber W. Remembrance, trauma and collective memory: the battle for memory in psychoanalysis. Int J Psychoanal. 2007;88(2):329–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowlby J. A secure base: clinical applications of attachment theory, vol. 393. London: Taylor & Francis; 2005.Google Scholar
  8. Brambilla P, Soloff PH, Sala M, Nicoletti MA, Keshavan MS, Soares JC. Anatomical MRI study of borderline personality disorder patients. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2004;131(2):125–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Breuer J, Freud S. Studies on hysteria. MANCA; 1957.Google Scholar
  10. Bromberg PM. The shadow of the tsunami and the growth of the relational mind. New York: Routledge; 2011.Google Scholar
  11. Bromberg PM. The shadow of the tsunami: and the growth of the relational mind. New York, NY: Routledge; 2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burghy CA, et al. Developmental pathways to amygdala-prefrontal function and internalizing symptoms in adolescence. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15(12):1736–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burke HM, Davis MC, Otte C, Mohr DC. Depression and cortisol responses to psychological stress: a meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005;30(9):846–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buss C, et al. Maternal care modulates the relationship between prenatal risk and hippocampal volume in women but not in men. J Neurosci. 2007;27(10):2592–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carlson EA, Sroufe LA. Contribution of attachment theory to developmental psychopathology. In: Cicchetti D, Cohen DJ, editors. Developmental psychopathology, theory and methods, vol. 1. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 1995. p. 581–617.Google Scholar
  16. Carlson V, Cicchetti D, Barnett D, Braunwald KG. Finding order in disorganization: lessons from research on maltreated infants’ attachments to their caregivers. In: Cicchetti D, Carlson V, editors. Child maltreatment: theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1989.Google Scholar
  17. Carpenter LL, et al. Decreased adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol responses to stress in healthy adults reporting significant childhood maltreatment. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62(10):1080–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carpenter LL, et al. Effect of childhood emotional abuse and age on cortisol responsivity in adulthood. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66(1):69–75.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cassidy J, Shaver PR, editors. Handbook of attachment: theory, research, and clinical applications. New York: Rough Guides; 2002.Google Scholar
  20. Clewett D, Schoeke A, Mather M. Amygdala functional connectivity is reduced after the cold pressor task. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2013;13:501–18.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cloitre M, Stolbach BC, Herman JL, Kolk BVD, Pynoos R, Wang J, Petkova E. A developmental approach to complex PTSD: childhood and adult cumulative trauma as predictors of symptom complexity. J Trauma Stress. 2009;22(5):399–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Courtois CA. Healing the incest wound: adult survivors in therapy. New York: Norton; 1996.Google Scholar
  23. Cozolino L. The neuroscience of psychotherapy: building and rebuilding the human brain, Norton series on interpersonal neurobiology. New York: Norton; 2002.Google Scholar
  24. Cozolino L. The neuroscience of human relationships: attachment and the developing social brain (Norton series on interpersonal neurobiology). New York: Norton; 2014.Google Scholar
  25. Dannlowski U, et al. Limbic scars: long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment revealed by functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;71(4):286–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Davidson RJ, McEwen BS. Social influences on neuroplasticity: stress and interventions to promote well-being. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:689–95.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. De Bellis MD. Developmental traumatology: the psychobiological development of maltreated children and its implications for research, treatment, and policy. Dev Psychopathol. 2001;13(3):539–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. De Bellis MD, Baum AS, Birmaher B, Keshavan MS, Eccard CH, Boring AM, et al. Developmental traumatology, part I: biological stress systems. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;45:1259–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dell PF, O’Neil JA, editors. Dissociation and the dissociative disorders: DSM-V and beyond. New York: Routledge; 2010.Google Scholar
  30. Diamond A, Doar B. The performance of human infants on a measure of frontal cortex function, the delayed response task. Dev Psychobiol. 1989;22(3):271–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Diamond MC, Krech D, Rosenzweig MR. The effects of an enriched environment on the histology of the rat cerebral cortex. J Comp Neurol. 1964;123(1):111–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ditzen B, et al. Intranasal oxytocin increases positive communication and reduces cortisol levels during couple conflict. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;65(9):728–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Draijer N, Langeland W. Childhood trauma and perceived parental dysfunction in the etiology of dissociative symptoms in psychiatric inpatients. Am J Psychiatr. 1999;156(3):379–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Driessen M, Herrmann J, Stahl K, Zwaan M, Meier S, Hill A, Osterheider M, Peterson D. Magnetic resonance imaging volumes of the hippocampus and the amygdala in women with borderline disorder and early traumatization. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57(12):1115–22.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Duncan NW, Hayes DJ, Wiebking C, Tiret B, Pietruska K, Chen DQ, Rainville P, Marjańska M, Ayad O, Doyon J, Hodaie M, Northoff G. Negative childhood experiences alter a prefrontal-insular-motor cortical network in healthy adults: a preliminary multimodal rsfMRI-fMRI-MRS-dMRI study. Hum Brain Mapp. 2015;36(11):4622–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Edmiston EE, et al. Corticostriatal-limbic gray matter morphology in adolescents with self-reported exposure to childhood maltreatment. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(12):1069–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Elzinga BM, et al. Diminished cortisol responses to psychosocial stress associated with lifetime adverse events a study among healthy young subjects. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008;33(2):227–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fan Y, Herrera-Melendez AL, Pestke K, Feeser M, Aust S, Otte C, Pruessner JC, Böker H, Bajbouj M, Grimm S. Early life stress modulates amygdala-prefrontal functional connectivity: implications for oxytocin effects. Hum Brain Mapp. 2014;35(10):5328–39.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Feeser M, Fan Y, Weigand A, Gärtner M, Aust S, Böker H, Bajbouj M, Grimm S. The beneficial effect of oxytocin on avoidance-related facial emotion recognition depends on early life stress experience. Psychopharmacology. 2014;231(24):4735–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V, Koss MP, Marks JS. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. Am J Prev Med. 1998;14(4):245–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ferenczi S. In: Dupont E, editor. The clinical diary of Sándor Ferenczi. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1932a. 1988.Google Scholar
  42. Ferenczi S. Confusion of tongues between adults and the child (the language of tenderness and the language of [sexual] passion) (Trans. J. M. Masson & I. Loring), Appendix C. In: Masson JM, editor. The assault on truth: Freud’s suppression of the seduction theory. New York: Random House; 1932b. 1984.Google Scholar
  43. Freese JL, Amaral DG. Neuroanatomy of the primate amygdala. In: Whalen PJ, Phelps EA, editors. The human amygdala. New York: The Guilford Press; 2009. p. 3–42.Google Scholar
  44. Freyd JJ. Betrayal trauma: the logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1996.Google Scholar
  45. Fries E, Hesse J, Hellhammer J, Hellhammer DH. A new view on hypocortisolism. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005;30(10):1010–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Gabbard G. Psychodynamic psychiatry. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publications; 2002.Google Scholar
  47. Ghosh S, Laxmi TR, Chattarji S. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to the hippocampus grows stronger after stress. J Neurosci. 2013;33:7234–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Grimm S, Pestke K, Feeser M, Aust S, Weigand A, Wang J, Wingenfeld K, Pruessner JC, Böker H, Bajbouj M. Early life stress modulates oxytocin effects on limbic system during acute psychosocial stress. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014;9(11):1828–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Grubrich-Simitis I. Extreme traumatization as cumulative trauma: psychoanalytic investigations of the effects of concentration camp experiences on survivors and their children. Psychoanal Study Child. 1981;36(1):415–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Guastella AJ, Mitchell PB, Dadds MR. Oxytocin increases gaze to the eye region of human faces. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;63(1):3–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Gunderson JG. Borderline personality disorder: a clinical guide. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 2008.Google Scholar
  52. Gunderson JG, Sabo AN. The phenomenological and conceptual interface between personality disorder and PTSD. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:19–27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Gurvits TV, Shenton ME, Hokama H, Ohta H, Lasko NB, Gilbertson MW, Orr SP, Kikinis SP, Jolesz FA, McCarley RW, Pitman RK. Magnetic resonance imaging study of hippocampal volume in chronic, combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2002;40(11):1091–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. van Harmelen AL, et al. Reduced medial prefrontal cortex volume in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;68(9):832–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Heim C, Binder EB. Current research trends in early life stress and depression: review of human studies on sensitive periods, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetics. Exp Neurol. 2012;233(1):102–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Heim C, Newport DJ, Bonsall R, Miller AH, Nemeroff CB. Altered pituitary-adrenal axis responses to provocative challenge tests in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158:575–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Heim C, Newport DJ, Mletzko T, Miller AH, Nemeroff CB. The link between childhood trauma and depression: insights from HPA axis studies in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008;33(6):693–710.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Heim C, et al. Lower CSF oxytocin concentrations in women with a history of childhood abuse. Mol Psychiatry. 2009;14(10):954–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Heinrichs M, Baumgartner T, Kirschbaum C, Ehlert U. Social support and oxytocin interact to suppress cortisol and subjective responses to psychosocial stress. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54(12):1389–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Henckens MJ, van Wingen GA, Joels M, Fernandez G. Corticosteroid induced decoupling of the amygdala in men. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:2336–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Henry JP. Psychological and physiological responses to stress: the right hemisphere and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, an inquiry into problems of human bonding. Integr Physiol Behav Sci. 1993;28(4):369–87.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Herman JL. Complex PTSD: a syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. J Trauma Stress. 1992;5(3):377–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Herman JP, Ostrander MM, Mueller NK, Figueiredo H. Limbic system mechanisms of stress regulation: hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2005;29:1201–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hermans EJ, van Marle HJ, Ossewaarde L, Henckens MJ, Qin S, van Kesteren MT, et al. Stress-related noradrenergic activity prompts large-scale neural network reconfiguration. Science. 2011;334(6059):1151–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hofer MA. The psychobiology of early attachment. Clin Neurosci Res. 2005;4(5):291–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hofer MA. Psychobiological roots of early attachment. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2006;15(2):84–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jurist EL, Slade AE, Bergner SE. Mind to mind: infant research, neuroscience, and psychoanalysis. New York: Other Press; 2008.Google Scholar
  68. Kaffman A, Meaney MJ. Neurodevelopmental sequelae of postnatal maternal care in rodents: clinical and research implications of molecular insights. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007;48(3-4):224–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kendler KS, Kuhn JW, Prescott CA. Childhood sexual abuse, stressful life events and risk for major depression in women. Psychol Med. 2004;34(8):1475–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kernberg O. The structural diagnosis of borderline personality organization. In: Borderline personality disorders: the concept, the syndrome, the patient. New York: International Universities Press; 1977. p. 87–121.Google Scholar
  71. Kestenberg JS. Psychoanalyses of children of survivors from the Holocaust: case presentations and assessment. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 1980;28(4):775–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kiem SA, Andrade KC, Spoormaker VI, Holsboer F, Czisch M, Samann PG. Resting state functional MRI connectivity predicts hypothalamus-pituitary-axis status in healthy males. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013;38:1338–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Klaassens ER, et al. Effects of childhood trauma on HPA-axis reactivity in women free of lifetime psychopathology. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33(5):889–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kogan I. The cry of mute children: a psychoanalytic perspective of the second generation of the Holocaust. London: Free Association Books; 1995.Google Scholar
  75. Krystal H, editor. Massive psychic trauma. New York: International Universities Press; 1968.Google Scholar
  76. Labuschagne I, Phan KL, Wood A, Angstadt M, Chua P, Heinrichs M, Stout JC, Nathan PJ. Medial frontal hyperactivity to sad faces in generalized social anxiety disorder and modulation by oxytocin. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;14:1–14.Google Scholar
  77. Lanius RA, Brand B, Vermetten E, Frewen PA, Spiegel D. The dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder: rationale, clinical and neurobiological evidence, and implications. Depress Anxiety. 2012;29(8):701–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lanius RA, Vermetten E, Loewenstein RJ, Brand B, Schmahl C, Bremner JD, Spiegel D. Emotion modulation in PTSD: clinical and neurobiological evidence for a dissociative subtype. Am J Psychiatr. 2010a;167(6):640–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lanius RA, Vermetten E, Pain C, editors. The impact of early life trauma on health and disease: the hidden epidemic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2010b.Google Scholar
  80. Laub D. Truth and testimony: the process and the struggle. In: Trauma: explorations in memory. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press; 1995. p. 63.Google Scholar
  81. Laub D, Auerhahn N. Knowing and not knowing. In: Psychoanalysis and holocaust testimony: unwanted memories of social trauma. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press; 2017. p. 32.Google Scholar
  82. Laub D, Auerhahn NC. Failed empathy--a central theme in the survivor’s holocaust experience. Psychoanal Psychol. 1989;6(4):377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Laub D, Finchelstein F. Memory and history from past to future: a dialogue with Dori Laub on trauma and testimony. In: Memory and the future. London: Palgrave Macmillan; 2010. p. 50–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Laub D, Lee S. Thanatos and massive psychic trauma: the impact of the death instinct on knowing, remembering, and forgetting. J Am Psychoanal Assoc. 2002;51(2):433–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. LeDoux JE. Emotion circuits in the brain. Ann Rev Neurosci. 2000;23(1):155–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lifton RJ. Death in life: survivors of Hiroshima. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press; 2012.Google Scholar
  87. Lingiardi V, McWilliams N, editors. Psychodynamic diagnostic manual: PDM-2. New York: Guilford Publications; 2017.Google Scholar
  88. Lingiardi V, Mucci C. Da Janet a Bromberg, Passando per Ferenczi. Psichiatr Psicoterapia. 2014;33(1):41–62.Google Scholar
  89. Linnen AM, Ellenbogen MA, Cardoso C, Joober R. Intranasal oxytocin and salivary cortisol concentrations during social rejection in university students. Stress. 2012;15(4):393–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Liotti G. Disorganized/disoriented attachment in the etiology of the dissociative disorders. Dissociation. 1992a;5:196–204.Google Scholar
  91. Liotti G. (1992b) Disorganizzazione dell’attaccamento e predisposizione allo sviluppo di disturbi funzionali della coscienza. In: Ammaniti M, Stern DN (a cura di) Attaccamento e psicoanalisi. Laterza: Bari, 219-232.Google Scholar
  92. Liotti M, Panksepp J. Imaging human emotions and affective feelings: implications for biological psychiatry. In: Textbook of Biological Psychiatry. Hoboken: Wiley; 2004. p. 33–74.Google Scholar
  93. Lupien SJ, McEwen BS, Gunnar MR, Heim C. Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009;10(6):434–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Lyssenko L, Schmahl C, Bockhacker L, Vonderlin R, Bohus M, Kleindienst N. Dissociation in psychiatric disorders: a meta-analysis of studies using the dissociative experiences scale. Am J Psychiatr. 2017;175:37–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. MacDonald E, Dadds MR, Brennan JL, Williams K, Levy F, Cauchi AJ. A review of safety, side-effects and subjective reactions to intranasal oxytocin in human research. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011;36:1114–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Main M, Hesse E. Parents’ unresolved traumatic experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status: is frightened and/or frightening parental behavior the linking mechanism? In: Greenberg MT, Cicchetti D, Cummings M, editors. Attachment in the preschool years: theory, research and intervention. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1990. p. 161–82.Google Scholar
  97. van Marle HJ, Hermans EJ, Qin S, Fernandez G. Enhanced resting-state connectivity of amygdala in the immediate aftermath of acute psychological stress. NeuroImage. 2010;53:348–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. McEwen BS. Stress, adaptation, and disease - allostasis and allostatic load. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998;840:33–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. McEwen BS. Brain on stress: how the social environment gets under the skin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109(Suppl 2):17180–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Meinlschmidt G, Heim C. Sensitivity to intranasal oxytocin in adult men with early parental separation. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61(9):1109–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Miller GE, Chen E, Zhou ES. If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in humans. Psychol Bull. 2007;133(1):25–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mucci C. Il dolore estremo: il trauma da Freud alla Shoah. Borla. 2008.Google Scholar
  103. Mucci C. Beyond individual and collective trauma: intergenerational transmission, psychoanalytic treatment, and the dynamics of forgiveness. London: Karnac; 2013.Google Scholar
  104. Mucci C. Trauma, healing and the reconstruction of truth. Am J Psychoanal. 2014;74(1):31–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mucci C. Attachment trauma, intergenerational transmission and resilience: What an AAI on a Second generation Shoah survivor may teach us. Poster presented at the 7th International Attachment Conference, (IAC), The New School, New York, August 6–8, 2015.Google Scholar
  106. Mucci C. Implicit memory, unrepressed unconscious, and trauma theory: the turn of the screw between contemporary psychoanalysis and neuroscience. In: Craparo G, Mucci C, editors. Unrepressed unconscious, implicit memory and clinical work. London: Karnac; 2016.Google Scholar
  107. Mucci C. Ferenczi’s revolutionary therapeutic approach. Am J Psychoanal. 2017;77(3):239–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mucci C. Borderline bodies. Affect regulation therapy for personality disorders. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company; 2018.Google Scholar
  109. Nakao T, Matsumoto T, Morita M, Shimizu D, Yoshimura S, Northoff G, Yamawaki S. The degree of early life stress predicts decreased medial prefrontal activations and the shift from internally to externally guided decision making: an exploratory NIRS study during resting state and self-oriented task. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013;7:339.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Northoff G, Heinzel A, De Greck M, Bermpohl F, Dobrowolny H, Panksepp J. Self-referential processing in our brain—a meta-analysis of imaging studies on the self. NeuroImage. 2006;31(1):440–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Northoff G, Panksepp J. The trans-species concept of self and the subcortical–cortical midline system. Trends Cogn Sci. 2008;12(7):259–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Northoff G, Bermpohl F. Cortical midline structures and the self. Trends Cogn Sci. 2004;8(3):102–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Northoff G, Schneider F, Rotte M, Matthiae C, Tempelmann C, Wiebking C, Bermpohl F, Heinzel A, Danos P, Heinze H-J, Bogerts B, Walter M, Panksepp J. Differential parametric modulation of self-relatedness and emotions in different brain regions. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30(2):369–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Olff M, Frijling JL, Kubzansky LD, Bradley B, Ellenbogen MA, Cardoso C, Bartz JA, Yee JR, van Zuiden M. The role of oxytocin in social bonding, stress regulation and mental health: an update on the moderating effects of context and interindividual differences. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013;38:1883–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pandya DN, Yeterian EH. Prefrontal cortex in relation to other cortical areas in rhesus monkey: architecture and connections. Prog Brain Res. 1991;85:63–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Pechtel P, Pizzagalli DA. Effects of early life stress on cognitive and affective function: an integrated review of human literature. Psychopharmacology. 2011;214:55–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Perry BD. Maltreated children: experience, brain development and the next generation. New York: Norton; 1999.Google Scholar
  118. Perry BD, Pollard R. Altered brain development following global neglect in early childhood. Proceedings from the Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, New Orleans; 1997.Google Scholar
  119. Pincus AL, Lukowitsky MR. Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. Ann Rev Clin Psychol. 2010;6:421–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Plotsky PM, et al. Long-term consequences of neonatal rearing on central corticotropin-releasing factor systems in adult male rat offspring. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;30(12):2192–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Porges SW. The polyvagal theory: neurophysiological foundations of emotions, attachment, communication, and self-regulation, Norton series on interpersonal neurobiology. New York: Norton; 2011.Google Scholar
  122. Pryce CR, et al. Long-term effects of early-life environmental manipulations in rodents and primates: Potential animal models in depression research. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2005;29(4-5):649–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Quirin M, Kuhl J, Dusing R. Oxytocin buffers cortisol responses to stress in individuals with impaired emotion regulation abilities. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011;36(6):898–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rinne T, De Kloet ER, Wouters L, Goekoop JG, DeRijk RH, van den Brink W. Hyperresponsiveness of hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis to combined dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge in female borderline personality disorder subjects with a history of sustained childhood abuse. Biol Psychiatry. 2002;52(11):1102–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Roelofs K, Keijsers GP, Hoogduin KA, Näring GW, Moene FC. Childhood abuse in patients with conversion disorder. Am J Psychiatr. 2002;159(11):1908–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sagi-Schwartz A, van IJzendoorn MH, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ. Does intergenerational transmission of trauma skip a generation? No meta-analytic evidence for tertiary traumatization with third generation of Holocaust survivors. Attach Hum Dev. 2008;10(2):105–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Saltzman KM, Weems CF, Carrion VG. IQ and posttraumatic stress symptoms in children exposed to interpersonal violence. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2006;36(3):261–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. Sanchez MM, Ladd CO, Plotsky PM. Early adverse experience as a developmental risk factor for later psychopathology: evidence from rodent and primate models. Dev Psychopathol. 2001;13(3):419–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sasso G. The development of consciousness: an integrative model of child development, neuroscience and psychoanalysis. London: Karnac Books; 2007.Google Scholar
  130. Scalabrini A, Cavicchioli M, Fossati A, Maffei C. The extent of dissociation in borderline personality disorder: a meta-analytic review. J Trauma Dissociation. 2017;18(4):522–43.Google Scholar
  131. Schmahl CG, Vermetten E, Elzinga BM, Bremner JD. Magnetic resonance imaging of hippocampal and amygdala volume in women with childhood abuse and borderline personality disorder. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2003;122(3):193–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Schore AN. Affect regulation and the origin of the self: the neurobiology of emotional development. London: Psychology Press; 1994.Google Scholar
  133. Schore AN. Early organization of the non-linear right brain and development of a predisposition to psychiatric disorders. Dev Psychopathol. 1997;9:595–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Schore AN. Attachment and the regulation of the right brain. Attach Hum Dev. 2000;2(1):23–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Schore AN. Dysregulation of the right brain: a fundamental mechanism of traumatic attachment and the psychopathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2002;36(1):9–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Schore AN. Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self, Norton series on interpersonal neurobiology. New York: Norton; 2003a.Google Scholar
  137. Schore AN. Affect regulation and the repair of the self, Norton series on interpersonal neurobiology. New York: Norton; 2003b.Google Scholar
  138. Schore AN. Relational trauma and the developing right brain. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1159(1):189–203.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. Schore AN. Relational trauma and the developing right brain: the neurobiology of broken attachment bonds. In: Baradon T, editor. Relational trauma in infancy: psychoanalytic, attachment and neurocontributions to parent–infant psychotherapy. London: Routledge; 2010. p. 19–47.Google Scholar
  140. Schore AN. The science of the art of psychotherapy, Norton series on interpersonal neurobiology. New York: Norton; 2012.Google Scholar
  141. Schore AN. Relational trauma, brain development, and dissociation. In: Treating complex traumatic stress disorders in children and adolescents: scientific foundations and therapeutic models. New York: The Guilford Press; 2013. p. 3–23.Google Scholar
  142. Schwartz ED, Perry BD. The post-traumatic response in children and adolescents. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1994;17:311–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Shin LM, Orr SP, Carson MA, Rauch SL, Macklin ML, Lasko NB, et al. Regional cerebral blood flow in the amygdala and medial prefrontalcortex during traumatic imagery in male and female vietnam veterans with ptsd. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(2):168–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Siegel DJ. The developing mind, vol. 296. New York: Guilford Press; 1999.Google Scholar
  145. Simeon D, Bartz J, Hamilton H, Crystal S, Braun A, Ketay S, Hollander E. Oxytocin administration attenuates stress reactivity in borderline personality disorder: a pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011;36:1418–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Solomon J, George C. The place of disorganization in attachment theory: linking classic observations with contemporary findings. In: Attachment disorganization. New York: Guilford Press; 1999.Google Scholar
  147. Stein MB, Koverola C, Hanna C, Torchia MG, McClarity B. Hippocampal volume in women victimised by childhood sexual abuse. Psychol Med. 1997;27(4):635–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sterlemann V, Ganea K, Liebl C, Harbich D, Alam S, Holsboer F, et al. Long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine alterations following chronic social stress in mice: implications for stress-related disorders. Horm Behav. 2008;53(2):386–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Teicher M. Wounds that time won’t heal: the neurobiology of child abuse. Cerebrum. 2000;2(4):50–67.Google Scholar
  150. Ulrich-Lai YM, Herman JP. Neural regulation of endocrine and autonomic stress responses. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009;10:397–409.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Vaisvaser S, Lin T, Admon R, Podlipsky I, Greenman Y, Stern N, et al. Neural traces of stress: cortisol related sustained enhancement of amygdala-hippocampal functional connectivity. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013;7:313.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Van der Kolk BA. The assessment and treatment of complex PTSD. In: Treating trauma survivors with PTSD. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2002. p. 127–56.Google Scholar
  153. Van der Kolk BA. The body keeps the score. Brain, mind, and body in the healing of trauma. New York: Penguin Books; 2014.Google Scholar
  154. Van der Kolk BA, d’Andrea W. Towards a developmental trauma disorder diagnosis for childhood interpersonal trauma. In: The impact of early life trauma on health and disease: the hidden epidemic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2010. p. 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Van der Kolk BA, Perry JC, Herman JL. Childhood origins of self-destructive behavior. Am J Psychiatry. 1991;148:1665–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Veer IM, Oei NY, Spinhoven P, van Buchem MA, Elzinga BM, Rombouts SA. Beyond acute social stress: increased functional connectivity between amygdala and cortical midline structures. NeuroImage. 2011;57:1534–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Vythilingam M, et al. Childhood trauma associated with smaller hippocampal volume in women with major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(12):2072–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Winslow JT, Noble PL, Lyons CK, Sterk SM, Insel TR. Rearing effects on cerebrospinal fluid oxytocin concentration and social buffering in rhesus monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28(5):910–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. Yehuda R, Engel SM, Brand SR, Seckl J, Marcus SM, Berkowitz GS. Transgenerational effects of posttraumatic stress disorder in babies of mothers exposed to the World Trade Center attacks during pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol. 2005;90(7):4115–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Yehuda R, Golier JA, Tischler L, Harvey PD, Newmark R, Yang RK, Buchsbaum MS. Hippocampal volume in aging combat veterans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder: relation to risk and resilience factors. J Psychiatr Res. 2007;41(5):435–45.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. Yehuda R, Halligan SL, Grossman R. Childhood trauma and risk for PTSD: relationship to intergenerational effects of trauma, parental PTSD, and cortisol excretion. Dev Psychopathol. 2001;13(3):733–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. Yehuda R, McFarlane AC. Conflict between current knowledge about posttraumatic stress disorder and its original conceptual basis. Am J Psychiatr. 1995;152(12):1705–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  163. Yehuda R, Teicher MH, Trestman RL, Levengood RA, Siever LJ. Cortisol regulation in posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression: a chronobiological analysis. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;40(2):79–88.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. Zanarini MC, Gunderson JG, Marino MF, Schwartz EO, Frankenburg FR. Childhood experiences of borderline patients. Compr Psychiatry. 1989;30:18–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. Zanarini MC, Williams AA, Lewis RE, et al. Reported pathological childhood experiences associated with the development of borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154:1101–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clara Mucci
    • 1
  • Andrea Scalabrini
    • 1
  • Georg Northoff
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychological, Health and Territorial Sciences (DiSPuTer)G. d’Annunzio University of Chieti-PescaraChietiItaly
  2. 2.Mind, Brain Imaging, and Neuroethics, Institute of Mental Health ResearchUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations