Different Physical Activity Protocols in the Subjects Affected by Osteoporosis

  • Gian Pietro EmerenzianiEmail author
  • Emanuela A. Greco
  • Laura Guidetti
  • Carlo Baldari


Physical activity is one of the most modifiable lifestyle parameters, and it is well known that it plays an important role for skeletal health. In details, physical activity has different aims according to the age of the subjects. Multicomponent exercise programs including aerobic exercise, resistance training, and balance exercise might be very efficient for improving bone mineral density in individuals with osteoporosis. The type, the frequency, and the intensity of exercise should be chosen according to the clinical subjects’ condition in order to reach the optimal positive effects of training. Moreover, exercise should be focused on muscles that play pivotal role for posture such as back extensor muscle.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gian Pietro Emerenziani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Emanuela A. Greco
    • 2
  • Laura Guidetti
    • 3
  • Carlo Baldari
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Experimental and Clinical MedicineUniversity of Catanzaro “Magna Græcia”CatanzaroItaly
  2. 2.Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Pathophysiology, Endocrinology and NutritionSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  3. 3.Department of Movement, Human and Health SciencesUniversity of Foro Italico of RomeRomeItaly
  4. 4.University eCampusNovedrateItaly

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