Advertisement

Nutrition and Skeletal Health

  • Chiara Marocco
  • Rachele Fornari
  • Andrea Lenzi
  • Emanuela A. Greco
Chapter

Abstract

During the last decades, in industrialized countries was observed a significant increase in average life expectancy with a gradual aging of the population. The prolonged life expectancy, lifestyle and improper eating behaviors have contributed to increase the incidence of illnesses, often resulting of well-being, such as obesity, dysmetabolism, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, which contribute heavily to both quality of life of those affected and significant increase in social costs.

References

  1. 1.
    NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis. JAMA. 2001;285:785–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Migliaccio S, Falcone S, Spera G. Bone modeling and remodeling: new roles for an old game. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2004;16(Suppl 3):20–2.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seeman E. Bone quality. Osteoporos Int. 2003;14(S5):3–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boivin G, Meunier PJ. The mineralization of bone tissue: a forgotten dimension in osteoporosis research. Osteoporos Int. 2003;14(3):S19–24.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dempster DW. The contribution of trabecular architecture to cancellous bone quality. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15:20–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kitchin B, Morgan S. Nutritional considerations in osteoporosis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2003;15:476–80.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Javaid MK, Cooper C. Prenatal and childhood influences on osteoporosis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;16:349–67.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Migliaccio S, Migliaccio PA. Attuali orientamenti della dietoterapia in gravidanza per la salute della donna e del bambino. Atti Congresso Nazoinale SIGO. 2001.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wosje KS, Khoury PR, Claytor RP, Copeland KA, Hornung RW, Daniels SR, Kalkwarf HJ. Dietary patterns associated with fat and bone mass in young children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(2):294–303.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bonjour JP, Ammann P, Chevalley T, Rizzoli R. Protein intake and bone growth. Can J Appl Physiol. 2001;26:S153–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Earl S, Cole ZA, Holroyd C, Cooper C, Harvey NC. Session 2: other diseases: dietary management of osteoporosis throughout the life course. Proc Nutr Soc. 2010;69:25–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cooper C, Harvey N, Cole Z, Hanson M, Dennison E. Developmental origins of osteoporosis: the role of maternal nutrition. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;646:31–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kalkwarf HJ, Khoury JC, Lanphear BP. Milk intake during childhood and adolescence, adult bone density, and osteoporotic fractures in US women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:257–65.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cooper C, Melton LJ 3rd. Epidemiology of osteoporosis. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 1992;3:224–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2011.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Table Ciqual de composition des aliments, ANSES (French agency for food, environmental and occupational health and safety), France. 2012. Accessed September 2017.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Food Standards Agency. McCance and Widdowson’s the composition of foods. 6th Summary ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry; 2002.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Adami S, Viapiana O, Gatti D, Idolazzi L, Rossini M. Relationship between serum parathyroid hormone, vitamin D sufficiency, age, and calcium intake. Bone. 2008;42:267–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schott GD, Willis MR. Muscle weakness in osteomalacia. Lancet. 1976;1:626–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Boland R. Role of vitamin D in skeletal muscle function. Endocr Rev. 1986;7:434–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rossini M, Mattarei A, Braga V, Viapiana O, Zambarda C, Benini C, Pancheri S, Spanevello MC, Lovato R, Sella S, Giannini S, Olivi P, Lavini F, Giulini GM, Fracassi E, Gatti D, Adami S. Risk factors for hip fracture in elderly persons. Reumatismo. 2010;62:273–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Isaia G, Giorgino R, Rini GB, Bevilacqua M, Maugeri D, Adami S. Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in elderly women in Italy: clinical consequences and risk factors. Osteoporos Int. 2003;14:577–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vieth R. Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:842–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Malabanan A, Veronikis IE, Holick MF. Redefining vitamin D insufficiency. Lancet. 1998;351:805–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Holick MF. Vitamin D Deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:266–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrin Metab. 2011;7:1911–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, Giovannucci EG, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2005;293:2257–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Adami S, Romagnoli E, Carnevale V, Scillitani A, Giusti A, Rossini M, Gatti D, Nuti R, Minisola S. Linee guida su prevenzione e trattamento dell’ipovitaminosi D con colecalciferolo. Reumatismo. 2011;63:129–147.2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Heaney RP. Dairy and bone health. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009;28(Suppl 1):82S–90S.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Darling AL, Millward DJ, Torgerson DJ, Hewitt CE, Lanham-New SA. Dietary protein and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90:1674–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Booth SL, Colditz GA. Vitamin K intake and hip fractures in women: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69:74–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hamidi MS, Gajic-Veljanoski O, Cheung AM. Vitamin K and bone health. J Clin Densitom. 2013;16:409–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Morris MS, Jacques PF, Selhub J. Relation between homocysteine and B-vitamin status indicators and bone mineral density in older Americans. Bone. 2005;37:234–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    McLean RR, Jacques PF, Selhub J, Tucker KL, Samelson EJ, Broe KE, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, Kiel DP. Homocysteine as a predictive factor for hip fracture in older persons. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2042–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Clarke M, Ward M, Strain JJ, Hoey L, Dickey W, McNulty H. B-vitamins and bone in health and disease: the current evidence. Proc Nutr Soc. 2014;73:330–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tanumihardjo SA. Vitamin a and bone health: the balancing act. J Clin Densitom. 2013;16:414–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    de Baaij JH, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ. Magnesium in man: implications for health and disease. Physiol Rev. 2015;95:1–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kvamme JM, Gronli O, Jacobsen BK, Florholmen J. Risk of malnutrition and zinc deficiency in community-living elderly men and women: the Tromso study. Public Health Nutr. 2014;18(11):1–7.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kanis JA, Johansson H, Johnell O, Oden A, De Laet C, Eisman JA, Pols H, Tenenhouse A. Alcohol intake as a risk factor for fracture. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16:737–42.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hallstrom H, Wolk A, Glynn A, Michaelsson K. Coffee, tea and caffeine consumption in relation to osteoporotic fracture risk in a cohort of Swedish women. Osteoporos Int. 2006;17:1055–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Barrett-Connor E, Chang JC, Edelstein SL. Coffee-associated osteoporosis offset by daily milk consumption. The rancho Bernardo study. JAMA. 1994;271:280–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Holroyd C, Harvey N, Dennison E, Cooper C. Epigenetic influences in the developmental origins of osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23:401–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Harvey N, Dennison E, Cooper C. Osteoporosis: a lifecourse approach. J Bone Miner Res. 2014;29:1917–25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Baird J, Kurshid MA, Kim M, Harvey N, Dennison E, Cooper C. Does birthweight predict bone mass in adulthood? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2011;22:1323–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Namgung R, Tsang RC. Bone in the pregnant mother and newborn at birth. Clin Chim Acta. 2003;333:1–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ganpule A, Yajnik CS, Fall CH, et al. Bone mass in Indian children--relationships to maternal nutritional status and diet during pregnancy: the Pune maternal nutrition study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:2994–3001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cole ZA, Gale CR, Javaid MK, Robinson SM, Law C, Boucher BJ, Crozier SR, Godfrey KM, Dennison EM, Cooper C. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and childhood bone mass: a longitudinal study. J Bone Miner Res. 2009;24:663–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Harvey NC, Javaid K, Bishop N, Kennedy S, Papageorghiou AT, Fraser R, Gandhi SV, Schoenmakers I, Prentice A, Cooper C. MAVIDOS maternal vitamin D osteoporosis study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. The MAVIDOS study group. Trials. 2012;13:13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Golden NH, Abrams SA, Committee on N. Optimizing bone health in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2014;134:e1229–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM, Endocrine S. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:1911–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    National Osteoporosis Foundation. Calcium and vitamin D: what you need to know. 2015. http://nof.org/articles/10 Accessed 24 Feb 2015.
  52. 52.
    Vartanian LR, Schwartz MB, Brownell KD. Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:667–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Peterlik M, Boonen S, Cross HS, Lamberg-Allardt C. Vitamin D and calcium insufficiencyrelated chronic diseases: an emerging world-wide public health problem. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009;6:2585–607.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee: Advisory Report to the Secretary of Health and Human Services and the Secretary of Agriculture. In: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Department of Health and Human Services – USA, editors. Washington DC; 2015.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes tables and application. 2015. http://www.iom.edu/Activities/Nutrition/SummaryDRIs/DRI-Tables.aspx. Accessed 24 Feb 2015.
  56. 56.
    Rizzoli R. Nutrition: its role in bone health. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;22:813–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cadogan J, Eastell R, Jones N, Barker ME. Milk intake and bone mineral acquisition in adolescent girls: randomised, controlled intervention trial. BMJ. 1997;315:1255–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Misra M, Katzman DK, Cord J, Manning SJ, Mendes N, Herzog DB, Miller KK, Klibanski A. Bone metabolism in adolescent boys with anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:3029–36.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    DiVasta AD, Feldman HA, Beck TJ, LeBoff MS, Gordon CM. Does hormone replacementnormalize bone geometry in anorexia nervosa? J Bone Miner Res. 2014;29:151–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Misra M, Katzman DK, Clarke H, Snelgrove D, Brigham K, Miller KK, Klibanski A. Hip structural analysis in adolescent boys with anorexia nervosa and controls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:2952–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Goulding A, Taylor RW, Jones IE, McAuley KA, Manning PJ, Williams SM. Overweight and obese children have low bone mass and area for their weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:627–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Goulding A, Grant AM, Williams SM. Bone and body composition of children and adolescents with repeated forearm fractures. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:2090–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Keys A, Fidanza F, Scardi V, Bergami G, Keys MH, Di Lorenzo F. Studies on serum cholesterol and other characteristics of clinically healthy men in Naples. AMA Arch Intern Med. 1954;93(3):328–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Keys A, Menotti A, Karvonen MJ, Aravanis C, Blackburn H, Buzina R, Djordjevic BS, Dontas AS, Fidanza F, Keys MH, et al. The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study. Am J Epidemiol. 1986;124(6):903–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mancini M, Parillo M, Rivellese A, Riccardi G. Nutrition and cardiovascular risk: the Mediterranean experience. Acta Cardiol. 1989;44(6):466–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Alberti-Fidanza A. Mediterranean meal patterns. Bibl Nutr Dieta. 1990;45:59–71.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    FerroLuzzi A, Ghiselli A. Protective aspects of the Mediterranean diet. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1993;348:137–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Santoro A, Pini E, Scurti M, Palmas G, Berendsen A, Brzozowska A, Pietruszka B, Szczecinska A, Cano N, Meunier N, de Groot CP, Feskens E, Fairweather-Tait S, Salvioli S, Capri M, Brigidi P, Franceschi C, NU-AGE Consortium. Combating inflammaging through a Mediterranean whole diet approach: the NU-AGE project’s conceptual framework and design. Mech Ageing Dev. 2014;136-137:3–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mattioli AV, Palmiero P, Manfrini O, Puddu PE, Nodari S, Dei Cas A, Mercuro G, Scrutinio D, Palermo P, Sciomer S, Di Francesco S, Novo G, Novo S, Pedretti RFE, Zito A, Parati G, Pedrinelli R, Farinetti A, Maiello M, Moscucci F, Tenaglia RL, Sucato V, Triggiani M, Cugusi L, Scicchitano P, Saba PS, Ciccone MM. Mediterranean diet impact on cardiovascular diseases: a narrative review. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2017;18(12):925–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dinu M, Pagliai G, Casini A, Sofi F. Mediterranean diet and multiple health outcomes: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2017.58.
  71. 71.
    Veronese N, Stubbs B, Noale M, Solmi M, Rizzoli R, Vaona A, Demurtas J, Crepaldi G, Maggi S. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with lower incidence of frailty: a longitudinal cohort study. Clin Nutr. 2017. pii: S0261-5614(17)30311-4.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tagliaferri C, Davicco MJ, Lebecque P, Georgé S, Amiot MJ, Mercier S, Dhaussy A, Huertas A, Walrand S, Wittrant Y, Coxam V. Olive oil and vitamin D synergistically prevent bone loss in mice. PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e115817.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115817.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kontogianni MD, Melistas L, Yannakoulia M, Malagaris I, Panagiotakos DB, Yiannakouris N. Association between dietary patterns and indices of bone mass in a sample of Mediterranean women. Nutrition. 2009;25:165–71.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Benetou V, Orfanos P, Pettersson-Kymmer U, Bergström U, Svensson O, Johansson I, Berrino F, Tumino R, Borch KB, Lund E, Peeters PH, Grote V, Li K, Altzibar JM, Key T, Boeing H, von Ruesten A, Norat T, Wark PA, Riboli E. Trichopoulou Mediterranean diet and incidence of hip fractures in a European cohort. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24(5):1587–98.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Romero Pérez A, Rivas Velasco A. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and bone health. Nutr Hosp. 2014;29(5):989–96.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Savanelli MC, Barrea L, Macchia PE, Savastano S, Falco A, Renzullo A, Scarano E, Nettore IC, Colao A, Di Somma C. Preliminary results demonstrating the impact of Mediterranean diet on bone health. J Transl Med. 2017;15(1):81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kunutsor SK, Laukkanen JA, Whitehouse MR, Blom AW. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet and incident fractures: pooled analysis of observational evidence. Eur J Nutr. 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1432-0.
  78. 78.
    Byberg L, Bellavia A, Larsson SC, Orsini N, Wolk A, Michaëlsson K. Mediterranean diet and hip fracture in Swedish men and women. J Bone Miner Res. 2016;31(12):2098–105.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mousavi SN, Koohdani F, Eslaminejad MB, Izadi P, Eshraghian M, Sayahpour FA, Neek LS, Shidfar F. Extra virgin olive oil in maternal diet increases osteogenic genes expression, but high amounts have deleterious effects on bones in mice offspring at adolescence. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2016;19(12):1299–307.  https://doi.org/10.22038/ijbms.2016.7915.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dewell A, Weidner G, Sumner MD, Chi CS, Ornish D. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108:347–56.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    New SA. Do vegetarians have a normal bone mass? Osteoporosis Int. 2004;15:679–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Craig WJ, Mangels AR, American Dietetic Association. Position of the American dietetic association: vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009;109:1266–82.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Davies GK, Key TJ. Diet and body-mass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:728–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Crowe FL, Steur M, Allen NE, Appleby PN, Travis RC, Key TJ. Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: results from the EPIC-Oxford study. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14:340–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Pawlak R, Parrott SJ, Raj S, Cullum-Dugan D, Lucus D. How prevalent is vitamin B(12) deficiency among vegetarians? Nutr Rev. 2013;71:110–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2011.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kerstetter JE, Allen LH. Dietary protein increases urinary calcium. J Nutr. 1990;120:134–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Thorpe MP, Evans EM. Dietary protein and bone health: harmonizing conflicting theories. Nutr Rev. 2011;69:215–30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kerstetter JE, Kenny AM, Insogna KL. Dietary protein and skeletal health: a review of recent human research. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2011;22:16–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Genaro PS, Martini LA. Effect of protein intake on bone and muscle mass in the elderly. Nutr Rev. 2010;68:616–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Massey LK. Dietary animal and plant protein and human bone health: a whole foods approach. J Nutr. 2003;133:862S–5S.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hamidi M, Boucher BA, Cheung AM, Beyene J, Shah PS. Fruit and vegetable intake and bone health in women aged 45 years and over: a systematic review. Osteoporos Int. 2011;22:1681–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rizzo NS, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Sabate J, Fraser GL. Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013;113:1610–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Outila TA, Kärkkäinen MU, Seppänen RH, Lamberg-Allardt CJ. Dietary intake of vitamin D in premenopausal, healthy vegans was insufficient to maintain concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone within normal ranges during the winter in Finland. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000;100:434–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Herrmann W, Schorr H, Obeid R, Geisel J. Vitamin B-12 status, particularly holotranscobalamin II and methylmalonic acid concentrations, and hyperhomocysteinemia in vegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78:131–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chiara Marocco
    • 1
  • Rachele Fornari
    • 2
  • Andrea Lenzi
    • 2
  • Emanuela A. Greco
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Movement, Human and Health SciencesUniversity of Foro Italico of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical Pathophysiology, Endocrinology and NutritionUniversity Sapienza of RomeRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations