Anatomy and Physiology of Skeletal Tissue: The Bone Cells

  • Giacomina Brunetti
  • Graziana Colaianni
  • Silvia Colucci
  • Maria GranoEmail author


The human skeleton, consisting of several hundreds of bones, is no longer believed as a static structural system protecting all soft tissues, but it is now thought as a highly dynamic system. In addition to its roles in locomotion, storage of minerals, and production of blood cells, the skeleton has recently been considered as a new endocrine organ, not only able in its regulation but also involved in the regulation of other organs, and, importantly, it plays a crucial role in the cross talk with the immune system and the skeletal muscle. Bone tissue is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuous remodeling through the balanced activity of osteoclasts, the bone-resorbing cells, and osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells, both orchestrated by the osteocytes, the most abundant cells embedded into the bone matrix. Here, we will provide an overview of the cytokines involved in the recent mechanisms highlighting bone cell differentiation and function.


Osteoclasts Osteoblasts Osteocytes 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giacomina Brunetti
    • 1
  • Graziana Colaianni
    • 2
  • Silvia Colucci
    • 1
  • Maria Grano
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Basic and Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, Section of Human Anatomy and HistologyUniversity of BariBariItaly
  2. 2.Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Section of Human Anatomy and HistologyUniversity of BariBariItaly

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