Biotechnology in Clone Gametophytes: Future Perspectives in Homosporous Ferns

  • Deepali Johari
  • Ajit Pratap Singh


Gametophyte is short-lived, photosynthetic prothallus stage in the life cycle of ferns, which is usually haploid and produces gametes for sexual fertilization; infrequently they also produce apogamous sporophyte. Biotechnological approaches can produce, multiply or modify the gametophytes of ferns and also develop a process for their specific use or conservation. Present contribution provides information about the use of biotechnological approaches for large-scale production of clone gametophytes, emphasizing the pretext on their in vitro studies, major hurdles in the homosporous ferns and the genetic barriers they exhibit. For such potential characteristics, the fern gametophyte is suggested as a model organism for biotechnological studies. We attempt to describe the mechanism of clone formation of the gametophytes, depicting the in vitro methods for development of gametophytes, the explant culture and the regeneration of clone gametophytes. Study describes that the clone gametophytes of Anemia rotundifolia, Cyathea spinulosa and Pronephrium nudatum perform sexual expression and mating to augment the sporophyte production. Besides, the contribution also delights about the transplantation of in vitro-raised sporophytes, their hardening, acclimatization and production for future perspectives, particularly, the prospection of proteins and genes for transgenic crops.


Ferns Gametophytes Biotechnology In -vitro Clone Protein Gene Transgenic 



Authors are indebted to Director, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, for extending the facilities of research and development activities. Thanks also to Prof. Eelena M. F. Gonzalez, the editor of the book, for inviting us to contribute in this volume and also for her generous support during preparation of the chapter. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, is greatly acknowledged for financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deepali Johari
    • 1
  • Ajit Pratap Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Pteridology Laboratory, Plant Diversity, Systematics & Herbarium DivisionCSIR-National Botanical Research InstituteLucknowIndia

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