Ultrasound of Postoperative Breast
Today, 60–80% of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases are treated with breast-sparing surgery. Breast-sparing procedures (tumorectomy, radical resection) include extensive tumor excision with simultaneous one-stage axillary lymphadenectomy. To reduce the volume of axillary lymphadenectomy and the risk of early (formation of lymphatic cysts and infections) and late (postmastectomic syndrome) complications, sentinel lymph nodes biopsy is used. Most common postsurgical complications are bleeding, hematomas, lymphorrhea, seromas, infectious complications, lipogranulomas, and complications due to implants. Depending on the terms, surgical complications are divided into early, which occur in the nearest 6 weeks after surgery, and late, which occur later. Breast reconstruction means only aesthetic restoration. The goal of breast reconstruction includes restoration of breast volume, creation of its aesthetic shape, and restoration of the skin, nipple-areolar complex, and symmetry. Breast reconstruction with an implant (silicone) or with patient’s own tissues may be used. Different authors report breast cancer recurrence after radical resection or radical mastectomy in 2.8–71%. Puncture biopsy of solid lesions in postoperative breast or its bed and postsurgical scars is mandatory and often a key aspect for differentiation and verification of tumor recurrence.
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