Current State of Diagnosis of Breast Diseases: Contribution of Medical Imaging Technologies

  • Alexander N. Sencha
  • Vladimir Bychenko
  • Yury Patrunov


Breast pathology is diagnosed in every fourth woman under the age of 30 and in 60% of older women. Accuracy of clinical examination in detecting benign and malignant tumors does not exceed 50–60%, sensitivity is 40–69%, and specificity is 88–95%. Digital mammography is the principle diagnostic method for breast pathology in women over 40 years of age. Ultrasound is now one of the most widespread and affordable imaging methods for diagnosis of breast pathology, early and differential diagnosis of breast masses, and guidance of minimally invasive modalities. US is more valuable for specification of cysts, fibroadenomas, lipomas, some malignant tumors, and duct ectasia. Both diagnostic methods would benefit from their combined use in the differential diagnosis of cysts, large benign soft tissue tumors, tumor-like masses, and malignant tumors. To assess the spread of the tumor, CT or MRI is strongly recommended. The risk of breast cancer increases with age. The basic concept of screening is the detection of the disease early enough to ensure optimistic prognosis and change of the “natural” clinical course. In female population, large-scale mammography screening can reduce mortality rate from breast cancer by 15–30%. The efficiency of mammography for screening has been tested in numerous randomized studies. In order to unify imaging findings description, a specialized BI-RADS lexicon was developed. Report categories in accordance with BI-RADS lexicon are presented. BI-RADS categories used in echography correspond to the categories used in other diagnostic procedures.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander N. Sencha
    • 1
  • Vladimir Bychenko
    • 2
  • Yury Patrunov
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Visual DiagnosticsNational Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology named after Academician V.I.Kulakov of Ministry of Healthcare of Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyNational Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology named after Academician V.I.Kulakov of Ministry of Healthcare of Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Department of Ultrasound Diagnostics of Radiology CenterYaroslavl Railway ClinicYaroslavlRussia

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